Home
Wirenet Communications
Contact us

Ether and
Magnetic field

Galileo and
Einstein
are wrong

Equivalence
Principle

Ether and
Equivalence
Principle

Proof  for
the advance
of Mercury's
perihelion


Open
Letter

 

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory I

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory II

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory III

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory IV

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory V

Generalised
Geometry

Mathematics
of degree

Video 01

Video 02


Ether
and
Light

 


Experiment 21
Experimental
Verification

 


Experiment 22
Experimental
Verification

 


The mistakes
of Einstein

 


Spherical
Shell
Problem
 

Recapitu-
lation


TECHNOLOGY
Fusion:
The “ZEUS”
machine

 


CERN/OPERA
IKARUS
TSOLKAS

 

THE ELECTRIC CONDUCTOR EXPERIMENT

Let us assume, Fig. 1(a), that we have a cylindrical copper conductor AB of length L (AB = L) and cross-section Do.

Fig. 1

Conductor AB is in a horizontal position and supported by two props of height h, e.g. on a laboratory table or the surface of the Earth.
The two ends A and B of conductor AB are connected to a power source E, with a constant supply of electric current.
Thus, we create a closed electric circuit ABCD, with a constant supply of electric current.
The electric circuit ABCD is equipped with a switch .
When the switch is off, an electric current of intensity i, Fig. 1(a), flows through the electric circuit ABCD.
Conversely, when switch is turned on, no electric current flows through the electric circuit (i = 0), Fig. 1(a).
Also, in Fig. 1(a), we have a platform P.
Platform P is fitted with two small wheels a and b, which enable it (Platform P) to move left and right at a constant velocity V along the laboratory table or the surface of the Earth.
We then affix a magnetic needle M on platform P, at a distance r from conductor AB.
We also place an observer (O) on platform P.
Finally, we consider platform P an inertial reference frame S.
Having established the above, we now perform our experiment, in two phases (Phase I and Phase II), as follows:

Performing the experiment

Phase : In Fig. 1(a) we turn off the switch , so that constant electric current of constant intensity i, (i ≠ 0), flows through the electric circuit ABCD.
During this phase, platform P is motionless in relation to the Earth. (V΄ = 0).
Also, during this phase (as is well known), the free electrons of the copper conductor AB will be in moving in relation to the Earth (and subsequently also in relation to the motionless platform P) at a velocity V:

where in relation (1), in terms of the copper we have n = 0,84 1023 electrons/cm3 and e is the electric current of the electron, e = 1,6 10-19 Cb.
Therefore, if, for example, constant electric current of intensity i = 100 Ampere flows through the electric circuit ABCD, and the cross-section of the conductor AB is Do=0,01 cm2, then, from relation (1), it emerges that the velocity V of the free electrons of the conductor AB in relation to the motionless platform P (and, subsequently, in relation to the Earth and the Earths Etherosphere) will be:

V = 7,4 mm/sec (2)

During this phase, according to the law of Ampere, a magnetic field of intensity B ( ≠ 0), will be created around conductor AB:

where, L >> r
Thus, this magnetic field will rotate the magnetic needle M, as per the inertial observer (O), who is on top of the motionless platform P.

Phase : In Fig. 1(b), we turn on the switch , so that no electric current flows through the electric circuit ABCD (i = 0), while also causing platform P to move the left, at a constant velocity – V =7,4 mm/sec, i.e., equal to the velocity of the free electrons of conductor AB that we worked out in phase I, Fig. 1(a), in accordance with relation (1).
During phase II, Fig. 1(b), since no electric current flows through the conductor AB, there will be no magnetic field around conductor AB, i.e. = 0.
Subsequently, during this phase, the magnetic needle M will not rotate at all and will remain stable in relation to the inertial observer (O), who is on top of the moving platform P.

After performing the experiment described in phase I, Fig. 1(a) and phase II, Fig. 1(b), it emerges that postulate I (see experiment 18) of the Special Theory of Relativity, must be considered false, because:

Proof

In order for postulate I of the Special Theory of Relativity to be correct, the magnetic needle M must yield exactly the same result, in both phase I, Fig. 1(a) and phase II, Fig. 1(b) for the inertial observer (O) who is located on top of platform P.
Because, according to the Special Theory of Relativity, whether the free electrons of conductor AB are moving at a velocity V in relation to platform P, Fig. 1(a), or whether platform P is moving at a velocity – V in relation to the free electrons of conductor AB, Fig. 1(b), both these situations are equivalent to one another.
Subsequently, since according to the Special Theory of Relativity, those two situations, Fig. 1(a) and Fig. 1(b), we described above are equivalent to one another, they ought to yield exactly the same result in terms of the magnetic needle M, in relation to the inertial observer (O) who is on top of platform P.
Unfortunately, however, the experiment demonstrates that these two situations, Fig. 1(a) and Fig, 1(b), are not equivalent to one another, as the Special Theory of Relativity claims. Because, during phase I, Fig. 1(a), we have a magnetic field ( ≠ 0) and the magnetic needle rotates in relation to the inertial observer (O), while during phase II, Fig. 1(b), we have no magnetic field (B = 0) and, subsequently, the magnetic needle M does not rotate (it remains stable), in relation to the inertial observer (O).
Subsequently, the electric conductor experiment II, which we described above, Phase I, Fig. 1(a), and Phase II, Fig. 1(b), proves, in a very simple way, that postulate I of the Special Theory of Relativity is false and, consequently, the axiomatic foundation of the Special Theory of Relativity is utterly false.
At this stage, we should also underline that Classical Physics has failed to explain the results of the electric conductor experiment II, in Phase I, Fig. 1(a), and Phase II, Fig. 1(b), as described above.
The electric conductor experiment II can only be fully understood if we accept the existence of Ether in Nature, in accordance with the New Ether Model of Electrogravitational Theory, and on the basis of the fundamental “Law of the creation of the magnetic field from an electric charge”, as those are described in the link entitled “Ether and magnetic field”, and in video 02 (Part I, THE ETHER), on the site www.tsolkas.gr.

AN INTERESTING OBSERVATION

ATTENTION!!! In the electric circuit ABCD, the electric current (and, subsequently, the magnetic field) created around the conductors of the electric circuit ABCD is created exclusively as a result of the motion of the free electrons of the copper electric circuit ABCD.
The positive ions of copper Cu+ of the electric circuit ABCD (since they are motionless in relation to the circuit ABCD, the Earth and the Earths Etherosphere, in accordance with the well-known fundamental law of the creation of the magnetic field from an electric charge) play absolutely no part in the creation of electric current (and, subsequently, of the magnetic field) on the conductors of the electric circuit ABCD, either in Phase I, Fig. 1(a), or Phase II, Fig. 1(b), in relation to the inertial observer (O).
This can be proven experimentally as follows:
We encase the copper cylindrical conductor AB in another copper cylinder 1, Fig. 2.

Fig. 2

Between the copper conductor AB and the copper cylinder 1 is another cylinder 2, with powerful insulating material. There is no electric current flowing through the copper cylinder 1, but we charge it with a high positive electric charge.
Thus, in phase II, Fig. 1(b), the positive ions of copper Cu+: 1) of the copper conductor AB (through which electric current flows) and 2) the copper cylinder 1 (through which flows no electric current), since they are moving at a velocity +V in relation to the inertial observer (O) ought to create electric current and, subsequently, also create a magnetic field, which would move the electric needle M.
However, as proven experimentally in Phase II, Fig. 1(b), the magnetic needle M does not rotate but remains stable as per the observer (O), who is on top of the moving platform P.
Therefore, in the way we described above, it is proven experimentally that the positive ions of copper Cu+ of the copper electric circuit ABCD play absolutely no part in the creation of electric current (and, subsequently, of a magnetic field) on the conductors of the electric circuit ABCD, in relation to observer (O), either in Phase I, Fig. 1(a), or in Phase II, Fig. 1(b), of our experiment.
Subsequently, the creation of electric current (and subsequently of a magnetic field around the conductors of the electric circuit ABCD) is due exclusively to the free electrons of the copper circuit ABCS, both in Phase I, Fig. 1(a), and in Phase II, Fig. 1(b), in relation to the observer (O), who is on top of platform P.
In summary, therefore (and as proven experimentally), the positive ions Cu+ of the copper circuit ABCD (which, as is well known, are motionless in relation to the Earths Etherosphere) play absolutely no part in the performance of the electric conductor experiment II, as described above.
Note: Exactly the same happens in the electric conductor experiment I (experiment 16), in terms of the positive ions of copper Cu+.
Namely during the performance of the electric conductor experiment I (experiment 16), the positive ions of copper Cu+ play absolutely no part in terms of the creation of the electric current (and, subsequently, the magnetic field) in the electric circuit ABCD, in relation to the inertial observer (O), who is on top of the platform P, in either phase I, Fig. 1(a), or Phase II, Fig. 1(b), of experiment 16, on www.tsolkas.gr.

Conclusion

The electric conductor experiment II, as described above, is a very simple Physics experiment, which costs very little and may easily be performed, for example, by students and various Physics laboratories.
The electric conductor experiment II is of great importance in Physics, because this very simple Physics experiment proves beyond question that postulate I of the axiomatic foundation of the Special Theory of Relativity is utterly false and not valid in Nature.

Copyright 2009: Christos A. Tsolkas                                                              July 17th, 2009

©  Copyright 2001 Tsolkas Christos.  Web design by Wirenet Communications