
         THE ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL THEORY PART V Α. ELEMENTARY PARTICLES
GENERAL ACCEPTANCES According to the Electrogravitational Theory (EGT), the following acceptances apply: 1. Hylions, i.e. the positive electrins +q^{0}, negative electrins q^{0} and gravitons m^{0}, are considered as solid spheres (small spheres) of the same radius r_{0}. 2.
In every elementary particle, all hylions adjoin one another, that is, they are in contact (electrogravitational contact) and in constant motion, occupying minimum space (volume). Consequently, all elementary particles are considered to have a spherical shape (spheres). In every elementary particle, the friction between the hylions that compose is considered to equal zero. 3. Hylions making up elementary particles are called bound hylions.
On the contrary, free hylions, such as the positive +q^{0} and negative q^{0} electrins of Ether will be called free hylions. Impacts between free hylions are considered as totally elastic. STRUCTURE OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 1. The electron The electron (Fig. 1) consists of only one negative electrin q^{0} and a number G_{e }of gravitons
m^{0}, around it. We will call the negative electrin q^{0} nucleus of the electron. As it is wellknown, the negative electrin q^{0} (that is, the electron’s nucleus) attracts the gravitons existing around it via electrogravitational forces, and thus the electron remains stable.         Fig. 1 2. The positron The foregoing also apply to the positron. The only difference is that the nucleus of
the positron is a positive electrin +q^{0} which is surrounded by a number G_{e+} of gravitons (Fig. 2). The electron and the positron consist of the same number of gravitons (G_{e}= G_{e+}),     
  
Fig. 2 3. The proton As it is wellknown, the proton’s mass m_{p} is about 1.835 times greater than the electron’s mass m_{e}. Therefore, since the electron’s mass is equal to the positron’s mass, (according to the EGT) the proton consists of 917 electrons and 918 positrons (Fig. 3). Apparently, the one extra positron (i.e. 918 – 917 = 1) is the one that imparts to the
proton its positive charge. We will call this positron the nucleus of the proton. Additionally, the 1.835 electrons and positrons making up the proton will be referred to as bound electrons and positrons of the proton. 
   Fig. 4 5. The neutron
The information given above about the proton equally applies to the neutron, with the only difference that the neutron consists of 918 bound electrons and 918 bound positrons, hence the neutron is electrically neutral (Fig. 5). Apparently, the neutron lacks a nucleus (that is a bound electron or positron) unlike e.g. the antiproton and the proton. 
           Fig. 5 6. The antineutron
The antineutron is actually the very neutron itself and its name derives from the nuclear reaction in which it participates. Consequently, the exact same information provided above about the neutron applies to the antineutron. 7. The neutrino Neutrinos are divided in two categories: a. Gravitational neutrinos and b. Electric neutrinos The gravitational neutrinos (Fig. 6)
consist of one, two, three, etc, gravitons, united with one another via gravitational forces and are respectively called simple, double, triple, etc, gravitational neutrinos. Double, triple, etc, gravitational neutrinos are extremely unstable elementary particles.   
 
  
Fig. 6 Electrical neutrinos (Fig. 7) consist of one positive and one negative electrin, united in the form of a couple and are attracted to one another via electrical forces. An electrical neutrino is composed of one such couple (of positive and negative electrin) and of no gravitons at all. 
   
   Fig. 7 8. The antineutrino The antineutrino is actually the neutrino itself and its name derives from the nuclear reaction in which it participates.
Consequently, what has been stated above about the neutrino equally applies to the antineutrino. Conclusion Elementary particles consists of hylions (i.e. positive electrins +q^{0}, negative electrins q^{0} and gravitons m^{0}) which are in electrogravitational contact with one another. The structure of elementary particles is the one stated above. As a result, quarks, strings, super
strings, etc, which are accepted by modern Physics as existent, do not exist in Nature. They are all concoctions of the mind that bear no relation whatsoever with the physical reality. MATTER AND ANTIMATTER As discussed earlier (See Electrogravitational Theory Ι), the universe consists of matter whose elementary particles are the positive electrin +q^{0}, the negative electrin q^{0}
and the graviton m^{0}. These three fundamental particles (+q^{0},q^{0},m^{0}) make up the elementary particles, the atoms, molecules, chemical compounds and consequently all bodies that exist in the universe (planets, the Sun, white dwarfs, black holes, etc). Antimatter is nothing more that the standard matter particles with an opposite electric charge, such as the electron – positron, the proton – antiproton,
etc, which we wrongly term “antimatter”. From a physical point of view, the term “antimatter” is totally wrong. Therefore, based on the postulates of the EGT and after everything discussed earlier, there is no antimatter in the universe, in the sense that for antimatter other physical laws apply (opposite to those known to us today) or opposite physical dimensions such as antimass, antienergy, antielectricity, antigravity, antimagnetism, etc.
All the above do not exist in Nature. Only matter, as described by the EGT postulates, exists in Nature. THE ELECTRON, POSITRON AND THE STRUCTURE OF ELEMNTARY PARTICLES According to the EGT, the electron and the positron play an important role where the structure of elementary particles is concerned. Based on what has been stated earlier about the structure of elementary particles, it can be
observed that all elementary particles, e.g. the proton, antiproton, neutron, etc, (with the exception of the neutrinos), consist of bound electrons and positrons. Consequently, according to the EGT, the electron and positron are the “structural stones” of all elementary particles (neutrinos, of course, excluded). At this point, it should be stressed that all elementary particles (with exception of neutrinos) which exist in nature and are the outcome of either a natural
process (e.g. cosmic radiation, etc) or an artificial one (e.g. inside an accelerator) are either stable (e.g. proton, antiproton, etc) or unstable (e.g. mesons, pions, etc) are made up of bound electrons and positrons. Therefore, in this case the EGT is in total contrast with modern Physics which accepts for instance that quarks, strings, etc, are subatomic particles of which elementary particles are composed. All these assertions of modern Physics are utterly erroneous and
bear no relation with reality, as already mentioned earlier. As a result of the foregoing, the following conclusion is drawn: Conclusion 1. The electron and positron constitute the “structural stones” of all elementary particles (save the neutrino) that exist in Nature and are generated by a natural or artificial process. 2. Under no circumstances do quarks, strings, κ.λ.π. function as
“structural stones” of elementary particles, as modern Physics holds. Quarks, strings, etc, do not exist in Nature. PRINCIPLE OF HYLION NUMBER CONSERVATION The “principle of hylion number conservation” is a fundamental principle of Physics which applies to all natural phenomena of the microcosm and macrocosm. This principle is the following:
The “principle of hylion number conservation”: In the universe, the number Ν_{1} of positive electrins +q^{0}, the number Ν_{2 }of negative electrins q^{0} and the number Ν_{3}_{ }of gravitons_{ }m^{0} remain at all times constant under any circumstances and are independent of time.
Thus, under the above principle, a hylion is never converted into another hylion or into energy. Consequently, since the creation of the universe to this day the total number Ν of all hylions in the universe, namely 
   N = N_{1} + N_{2} + N_{3} 


   has always been constant. MATTER AND ENERGY 1. CONVERSION OF MATTER INTO ENERGY LAW: In a closed system, the total number
of the bodies’ (or particles’) hylions prior to a reaction or a natural change is always equal to the total number of hylions of the bodies (or particles) which were produced in the wake of this reaction or natural change. We will refer to this law as the law of “hylion number conservation”. Thus, according to the latter, the observed mass deficit Δm in e.g. a nuclear reaction (fission, fusion, etc)
is never converted into an equivalent energy Ε according to the law expressed by 
   
  
as the Theory of Relativity wrongly maintains. The reason for this, according to the EGT, is that the observed mass deficit Δm is attributed to a number of the particles’ gravitons (prior to the reaction) which during the nuclear reaction were scattered in space, thus, reducing the total graviton number of the particles which [particles] were generated following the nuclear reaction. The above law is universally valid and applies to
any nuclear reaction, chemical reaction or natural change. 2. CONVERSION OF ENERGY INTO MATTER As it is wellknown, if we bombard an atomic nucleus with highenergy γrays, their energy being hv ³ 1,02MeV, then an electronpositron couple will be produced based on the reaction: 
                             
The interpretation given by the Theory of Relativity to relation (1) is that the energy hν of the γrays has been converted into matter (that is, into an electron e^{} and an positron e^{+}) according to the E=mc^{2} equation of the massenergy equivalence. However, the Theory of Relativity errs greatly in its assertions for the following reasons: According to the EGT,
matter is never converted into energy, and viceversa energy is never converted into matter. The question that is being raised is the following: Which is the physical interpretation of relation (1)? The answer to this question is simple: By the EGT, the energy hν of γrays is not “something incorporeal”. The energy hν is a forceful oscillation of Ether’s positive and negative electrins which are of a material substance and thus are not “something incorporeal”
. Thus, this intense energy hν of Ether’s positive and negative electrins, when crashing onto an atomic nucleus (consisting of protons and neutrons which in turn are composed of bound electrons and positrons as stated above), it causes the “detachment” of one bound electron e^{ }and one bound positron e^{+} from the atomic nucleus, hence the result of relation (1).
Consequently, in the case of relation (1) there is absolutely no conversion of energy into matter (as the Theory of Relativity wrongly states), just a “detachment” of a bound electron e^{ }and a bound positron e^{+} from the atomic nucleus, when a forceful energy hν of γrays crashes onto this atomic nucleus. In other words, what occurs in relation (1) is one electron and one positron being detached from the atomic nucleus
and not a conversion of the energy hν into matter (electron and positron), as Einstein erroneously asserts. This is the correct answer to the above question. THE LAW OF “HYLION NUMBER CONSERVATION” AND NUCLEAR REACTIONS As discussed earlier (The structure of elementary particles): 1. The neutron consists of 918 bound electrons and 918 bound positrons. 2.
The proton consists of 917 bound electrons and 918 bound positrons. 3. The neutrino (or antineutrino) consists of a number of gravitons. As it is wellknown, once a neutron is found outside the atomic nucleus, it disintegrates in about 768 sec into a proton, an electron and an antineutrino, according to the nuclear reaction:         As it can be observed, in this nuclear disintegration, a bound electron is “detached” from the neutron, and
consequently, the neutron is converted into a proton with simultaneous emission of one antineutrino, that is:         Moreover, based on the law of “hylion number conservation”, the above nuclear disintegration (1.1) yields:    
    where in relation (1.3), N_{h,n}, N_{h,p}, N_{h,e}, N_{h,v} are respectively the number of hylions (positive electrins +q^{0}, negative electrins q^{0} and gravitons
m^{0}) constituting the neutron, proton, electron and antineutrino. Apparently, the neutrino (or antineutrino) in relation (1.1) consists only of gravitons. Finally, what has been stated above –relation (1.2) and relation (1.3)– about the nuclear reaction (1.1) applies to any nuclear reaction. SELFENERGY OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES Definition: The selfenergy of an
elementary particle is the energy that must be consumed in order to divide the elementary particle into its hylions (positive electrins +q^{0}, negative electrins q^{0} and gravitions m^{0}) of which this elementary particle is composed. 1. Calculating the selfenergy of the electron. As it is wellknown, the union of an electron e^{} and one positron e^{+}
brings about the release of energy hν equal to 1,02 MeV :         Based on the EGT law of “hylion number conservation”, the physical importance of relation (2) lies in that these two elementary particles (i.e. the electron and positron) have been scattered and broken down into the hylions that constitute them. Thus, on the basis of relation (2), the released energy of 1,02 MeV
is the aggregate of the selfenergies U_{e} of the electron and U_{e+ }of the positron. Yet, because the electron’s selfenergy U_{e}_{ }is equal to_{ }the positron’s selfenergy U_{e+}_{ }(U_{e+ }= U_{e}), then the selfenergy U_{e }of the electron is U_{e}= 0,51 MeV.
Similarly, the positron’s selfenergy U_{et} is: U_{e+ }= 0,51 MeV. 2. Calculating the selfenergy of the proton As it is wellknown, the union of a proton p^{+} and an antiproton p^{} generates the release of energy hν, equal to 940 MeV, namely:         According to the EGT law of “hylion number conservation”, the physical importance of
relation (3) lies in that during the above union, the proton and antiproton have been scattered into the hylions that constitute them. Thus, the released energy of 940 MeV is the aggregate of selfenergies U_{p+} of the proton and U_{p} of the antiproton. However, because U_{p+ }= Up, the selfenergy U_{p+ }of the proton_{ }is: U_{p+ }= 470 MeV (4) Similarly, the selfenergy Up of the antiproton is: U_{p }= 470 MeV After what has been analyzed above, the following conclusion is reached: Conclusion 1. In order to break down an electron or positron into the hylions constituting (that is, to cause them to lie at an infinite distance from each other), we must consume energy equal to 0,51 MeV. 2. Similarly, in
order to break down a proton or antiproton into the hylions constituting (that is, to cause them to lie at an infinite distance from each other), we must consume energy equal to 470 MeV. NOTABLE REMARK Let us assume that there is a body of mass m. It has been experimentally proven that the following relation applies:   
     At this point it should be stressed that:
According to the massenergy equivalence principle of the Special Theory of Relativity        That is, mass m (which is “something material”) is converted into an equivalent energy Ε (which is “something incorporeal”), and viceversa, energy Ε (which is “something incorporeal”) is converted into an equivalent mass m (which is “something material”). Evidently, the assertions of the Theory of Relativity are utterly wrong, actually bordering on metaphysics,
rather than constituting physics, because of the following: The concept of the “dematerialization” of mass m (as the Theory of Relativity maintains) is nothing more but the “scattering” of all hylions of which this mass m is composed, according to the EGT law of “hylion number conservation”. Consequently, the selfenergy U_{m} of mass m is:         and because mass m is in a constant state, the selfenergy U_{m}
, has a negative value, namely: U_{m} < 0 (8) After everything stated above, the following conclusion is drawn: Conclusion In order to break a body of mass m into the hylions constituting it (that is, για να (that is, to cause them to lie at an infinite distance from each other) we must consume an energy U_{m}, equal to: U_{m} = + m · c ^{2}
NOTE: The fact that the equation E = m · c ^{2 }of the Theory of Relativity has been also verified experimentally is a great error, because this particular equation can be proven theoretically without the Theory of Relativity. In other words, the equation E = m · c ^{2} of the Theory of Relativity can be experimentally verified yet, under no circumstances does this verification imply an equivalence between
energy Ε and mass m, as Einstein wrongly holds. To put it plainly, what the Theory of relativity terms “dematerialization” of mass m is nothing more but the “scattering” of all hylions of which this mass m is composed, according to the EGT law of “hylion number conservation”. THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES 1. Stable elementary particles.
As mentioned earlier, an elementary particle Α is stable when its selfenergy U_{A} is negative, namely: U_{A} < 0 (9) However, as it is wellknown, of all elementary particles that exist in nature in a free state and have a mass equal to or greater than the mass of the electron, the only stable ones are the electron, positron, proton and antiproton. All the other elementary particles are unstable and
have a very short life cycle (with the exception of the neutron whose lie cycle is about 768 sec). Furthermore, the electric charge of all stable elementary particles has an absolute value, equal to the electric charge of the electrin and is never a multiple or submultiple of the latter. However, each of these stable elementary particles (except for the electron and positron) consist of bound electrons and positrons (e.g. the proton). In addition, the nucleus of every bound electron or
positron is one single negative or positive electrin. As a result of everything stated above, the following fundamental law of stable elementary particles can be formulated: LAW Ι: For a stable elementary particle A, the following relations always apply:    
 
   where Ν_{1}^{+ }is the^{ }number of positive electrins +q^{0} and Ν_{2}^{ }is the number of negative electrins^{ }q^{0} which exist in this stable elementary particle Α. Example: According to the above law: 1) For the antiproton, Ν_{1}^{+ }= 917 and Ν_{2}^{}
= 918 namely, Ν_{1}^{+ } Ν_{2}^{} = 917 – 918 = 1. 2) For the electron, Ν_{1}^{+ }= 0 and Ν_{2}^{} = 1, namely, Ν_{1}^{+ } Ν_{2}^{} = 0 – 1 =  1 3) For the positron, Ν_{1}^{+ }= 1 and Ν_{2}^{} = 0, namely Ν_{1}^{+ } Ν_{2}^{} = 1 – 0 = 1
4) For the proton, Ν_{1}^{+ }= 918 and Ν_{2}^{} = 917, namely Ν_{1}^{+ } Ν_{2}^{} = 918 – 917 = 1 2.Non stable elementary particles Based on the foregoing, if the selfenergy U_{A} of an elementary particle is: 
                 then this particle is nonstable (unstable). However, it has been observed that for all unstable elementary particles that exist in Nature in a free state and are the outcome of either a natural process (e.g. cosmic radiation, etc) or an artificial one (e.g. inside accelerators) and which have a mass greater than the mass of the electron,
the absolute value of their electric charge is equal to the absolute value of the electrin’s electric charge or that these unstable particles have an Ο electric charge, i.e. they are electrically neutral. In other words, the electric charge of unstable elementary particles is never a multiple or submultiple of the electron’s electric charge, and unstable elementary particles (just like stable elementary particles) consist of bound electrons and positrons. Yet, as it is
wellknown, these bound electrons and positrons that are contained in unstable elementary particles consist of one only positive or negative electrin. Therefore, after everything discussed above, the following law of nonstable (unstable) elementary particles can be formulated: LAW ΙΙ: For a nonstable (unstable) elementary particle A, the following relations apply:        where Ν_{1}^{+ }and Ν_{2}^{} are respectively the number of positive (+q^{0}) and negative ( q^{0})
electrins which exist inside this unstable elementary particle A. The fundamental problem of elementary particles The elementary problem of elementary particles is explained below: Problem: According to the postulates and laws of the EGT discussed earlier, by what mathematical method do relations (10.a) and (12.a) yield respectively relations (10.b) and (12.b)
of laws Ι and ΙΙ referred to above? Apparently, the solution to this problem constitutes for Physics the object of broader research where elementary particles are concerned. Β. THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS. STABILITY OF ATOMIC NUCLEI General. Let us assume that: m_{o,p} = the pure mass of the proton m_{o,n} = the pure mass of the neutron q_{p}
= the absolute value of the total electric charge of the proton q_{n} = the absolute value of the total electric charge of the neutron q^{0} = the absolute value of the total electric charge of the positive or negative electrin ±q^{o}, which is equal to: q^{0} = e = 1,6 x 10– 19 Cb, where e is the electric charge of the electron.
r = the radius of the proton which is considered equal to the radius of the neutron. Given that: 1. The proton p^{+} consists of 1835 electrins, (918 positive + 917 negative = 1835), then: q_{p} = 1835q^{0}. 2. The neutron n consists of 1836 electrins, (918 positive + 918 negative = 1836), then: q_{n }= 1835q^{0}. 3.
The graviton number of the proton is approximately equal to the graviton number of the neutron; thus, from the foregoing, we obtain, to a great degree, the following:     
   FORCES BETWEEN PROTONS AND NEUTRONS Α. Proton – proton Let us assume (Fig. 8) that there are two protons Α and Β lying at a distance R, (R > r) from each other.      
   Fig. 8 In this case, according to the laws of the EGT: 1. The gravitational dynamic F_{G}, the electrogravitational force F_{EG} and the electric dynamic F_{E}, which the two protons
Α and Β exert on one another will be: 
       
                   
 2. The gravitational dynamic energy U_{G}, the electrogravitational dynamic energy U_{EG} and the electric dynamic energy U_{E} of the system consisting of the two protons Α and Β, are:        3. The aggregate U_{p,p} given by relations(Β), namely:         will be called
total dynamic energy U_{p,p} of these two protons Α and Β. Β. Proton – neutron Let us assume (Fig. 9), that there is a proton Α and a neutron Β lying at a distance R, (R > r) from each other.    
    Fig. 9 In this case, based on the EGT postulates and laws: 1. The gravitational dynamic F_{G}
, the electrogravitational force F_{EG} and the electric force F_{E}, exerted between the proton Α and neutron Β, are:     
   2. The gravitational dynamic energy U_{G}, the electrogravitational dynamic energy U_{EG} and the electric dynamic energy U_{E} of the system consisting of the proton Α and neutron Β are: 
      3.
The total dynamic energy U_{p,n} of the system consisting of the proton Α and neutron Β on the basis of relations (D), is:     
  C. Neutron – neutron Let us assume (Fig. 10) that there are two neutrons Α and Β lying at a distance R, (R > r) from each other.    
    Fig. 10 In this case: 1. The gravitational dynamic F_{G}
, the electrograitational dynamic F_{EG} and the electric dynamic F_{E}, that the two neutrons Α and Β exert on one another, are:     

   2. The gravitational dynamic energy U_{G}
, the electrogravitational dynamic energy U_{EG} and the electric dynamic energy U_{E} of the systems of the two neutrons Α and Β are: 
  
3. The total dynamic energy U_{n,n} of the systems of the two neutrons Α and Β, according to relations (G), are: 
 
 THE FUNDAMENTAL POSTULATES OF THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS Postulate Ι: (proton – proton). In the case of Fig. (8), when the two protons Α and Β come into electrogravitational contact with one another, namely R = r, then relations (Α) and (Β) will apply in the form given below: 
   and 
 
   where, on the basis of relations(Β.1), the total dynamic energyU_{p,p} of the two protons Αand Β,
is: 
   Postulate ΙΙ: (proton – neutron). In the case of Fig. 9, when the proton
Α and the neutron Β, come into electrogravitational contact with one another, namely R = r, then relations (C) and (D) will apply in the form given below: 
   and 
 
   where, based on relations (D.1), the total dynamic energy U_{p,n} of the proton Α and neutron Β is: 
   Postulate ΙΙΙ:(neutron – neutron). In the case of Fig. 10, when the two neutrons, Α and Β, come into electrogravitational
contact, namely R = 2r, then relations (Ε) and (F) will apply in the following form: 
   and 
 
   where, on the basis of relations (F.1), the total dynamic energy U_{n,n} of the two neutrons Α and Β, is: 
                 In postulates Ι, ΙΙ, ΙΙΙnumbers Τ_{1}, Τ_{2}, Τ_{3} are positive Τ_{1}, Τ_{2}, Τ_{3} > 0 and are called: Τ_{1}, proto – proton electrogravitational contact factor
and will be denoted by Τ_{pp}. Τ_{2}, proton – neutron electrogravitational contact factor, and will be denoted by T_{pn}. Τ_{3}, neutron – neutron electrogravitational contact factor, and will be denoted by T_{nn}. Postulate IV:In the atomic nucleus, all nucleons are in electrogravitational contact with each other. When the distance R
between two nucleons (inside the atomic nucleus) is R = 2r, (where r, is the radius of the nucleon), then we can say that these two nucleons are in direct electrogravitational contact. However, when R > 2r, then these two nucleons are in indirect electrogravitational contact.In the case of the fundamental postulates Ι, ΙΙ, ΙΙΙmentioned above, the distance R will be considered as the distance between two nucleons of the atomic nucleus, either R = 2r or
R > 2r. Postulate V:In the atomic nucleus, the three electrogravitational contact factors Τ_{1}, Τ_{2}, Τ_{3}, become equal relative to a common factor Τ, namely: Τ_{1} = Τ_{2} = Τ_{3} = Τ The number Τ will be called “electrogravitational contact factor”of the atomic nucleusto which we refer.
Each atomic nucleus has its own electrogravitational contact factor Τ, denoted by Τ_{Ν,Μ}, where Νis the atomic number and Μis the mass number of the atomic nucleus. So, for instance, the electrogravitational contact factor Τ_{2,4} of the atomic nucleus of _{2}He^{4} has a value different than the value of the electrogravitational contact factorΤ_{8,16} of the atomic nucleus of _{8}O^{16},
etc. Definition:The total dynamic energy U_{N,M} of an atomic nucleus, with atomic number Ν and mass number Μ, is the aggregate of the total dynamic energies given by relations (17), (18) and (19) for all nucleon couples of the atomic nucleus, with all possible combinations. Postulate VI: The total dynamic U_{N,M}, of an atomic nucleus is equal to:   
     where Ε is the binding energy of the atomic
nucleus’s nucleons and Δm is the mass deficit which corresponds to this atomic nucleus. Evidently, the total dynamic energy U_{N,M} of an atomic nucleus is the energy +Δm · c^{2} that we must consume in order to break the atomic nucleus down into the nucleons constituting it, so that the latter are found at an infinite distance from one another. THE PHYSICAL IMPORTANCE OF THE FUNDAMENTAL POSTULATES OF THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS
The physical importance of the abovementioned fundamental postulates of the atomic nucleus is the following: 1. In the macrocosm, physical laws apply in a form different than the one in which they apply inside atomic nuclei. Thus, for instance, while in the macrocosm the fundamental laws of the EGT apply with their constants G_{0}, τ_{0} (See e.g. relations (Α) and (Β)), inside the atomic
nucleus these constants do not exist and are replaced by the atomic nucleus’s electrogravitational contact factor Τ. 2. Moreover, according to modern Physics (as it is well known), gravitational forces do not play any role at all when it comes to the forces of the atomic nucleus. Conversely, according to the EGT, gravitational forces (together with electrogravitational forces) play a major role in the nucleus’s forces in terms of their stability.
3. Based on the above postulates, the gravitational and electrogravitational forces that apply outside atomic nuclei, undergo a change inside these nuclei; as a result of this, gravitational and electrogravitational forces increase, while electric forces remain stable,
(according to the existence of the electrogravitational contact factor Τ) and this results in the stability of the atomic nuclei. Apparently, this increase in gravitational and electrogravitational forces is greater than the atomic nucleus’s electric forces, for if the latter was not true, the atomic nuclei would have disintegrated due to the electric charge of their protons, something which of course does not occur in reality. So, this is in general terms the physical importance of
the atomic nucleus’s fundamental postulates mentioned above. EXAMPLE Example: For the atomic nucleus _{2}He^{3}, find the following: 1. The force by which the two protons attract one another, and 2. The force by which a neutron is attracted by the two protons SOLUTION Let us assume (Fig. 11
) that we have the atomic nucleus of _{2}He^{3}       
 Fig. 11 According to the EGT, inside the atomic nucleus of _{2}He^{3}, the two protons and one neutron are into electrogravitational contact and therefore the abovementioned fundamental postulates of the atomic nucleus will apply. First of all, we need to find the electrogravitational contact factor Τ of the atomic nucleus _{2}He^{3}.
The latter can be found as follows: 1. The gravitational dynamic energy U_{G}Ά between the neutron C and proton Α is:     
   The electrogravitational dynamic energy U_{EG}’’’‘ between the neutron C and proton Α is: 
  
The electrogravitational dynamic energy between the proton Α and proton Β is: 
      
                  The electric dynamic energy between the proton Α and proton Β is:         Furthermore, let us assume that Ε is the binding energy of the atomic nucleus _{2}He^{3}. (As it is wellknown, the energy Ε
is given by reference table of Physics). According to the fundamental Postulate VI, the total dynamic energy U_{2,3} of the atomic nucleus _{2}He^{3} is:    
   and based on relations (21), (22), (23), (24), (25), (26), (27), (28), (29), relation (30) yields:    
    Relation (31) gives the value of the electrogravitational contact factor Τ of the atomic nucleus for _{2}He^{3}.
Consequently, according to the above fundamental postulates, the following apply: 1. The gravitational dynamic F’_{1,} by which the proton Α and neutron C are attracted, is:         2. The electrogravitational dynamic F’_{2} by which the proton Α and neutron C are attracted, is:        
3. The electrogravitational dynamic F’_{3} by which the proton Α and neutron C are attracted, is: F’_{3} = 0 (34) Similarly, the gravitational dynamic F’’_{1}, the electrogravitational dynamic F’’_{2} and the electric dynamic F’’_{3}, by which the proton Β and neutron C are attracted, will be:         Finally,
the gravitational dynamic F_{1}’’’, by which the two protons Α and Β are attracted, will be:      
   The electrogravitational dynamic F_{2}’’’, by which the two protons Α
and Β are attracted, will be: 
                The electric dynamic F_{3}’’’, via which the two protons Α and Β repel one another, will be:   
    Therefore, after everything stated above, the two protons Α and Β are attracted to one another via a force F_{A,B}
, namely:       
By substituting in relation (41) F_{1}’, F_{2}’, F_{1}’’’, F_{3}’’’, which are given by the above relations (where φ = 60^{ο}), we obtain:   
 
   Relation (42) yields the force F_{A,B }by which the two_{ }protons Α and Β are attracted to one another in the atomic nucleus of _{2}He^{3}. Application 1. Since the binding energy of the atomic nucleus _{2}He^{3} is: 
 
 By substituting the values of relations (42.1), (42.2), (42.3) and (42.4) from relation (42), it results that: 
  
Conclusion In the atomic nucleus of _{2}He^{3}, the two protons Α and Β are attracted to one another via a force F_{A,B} = 310Ν 


   Similarly, the force F_{C, AB}_{ }via which_{ }the neutron C
is attracted by the two protons Α and Β, is: 
   where F_{1}’, F_{2}’,
F_{1}’’, F_{2}’’ and Τ are given by the above relations. Then, in order to find the value F_{C, AB},_{ }we proceed as in the previous case when we calculated the force F_{A,B} of the two protons Α and Β. Note: The pure mass m_{o,p} of the proton is considered to be, to a great extent, equal to: 
   m_{o,p} = 1,6724 ^{. }10^{24} gr 


   so as to calculate the electrogravitational contact factor Τ, (relation (31)). The same method employed above for the atomic nucleus of _{2}_{He}^{3}, will be implemented for all atomic nuclei. When, however, the atomic nuclei have a mass number of Μ > 3, then we will work in space, e.g. in the case of the atomic nucleus of _{2}_{H}^{4} , the two protons and two neutrons are found in the vertices of a standard tetrahedron.
In general terms, in atomic nuclei of great mass number Μ, all nucleons are into electrogravitational contact with one another and are distributed in energy levels, within a sphere R, where R is the radius of the atomic nucleus. Finally, for purposes of familiarizing the reader with the EGT, a simple problem follows: Problem for the reader Find the force F by which the proton and neutron
are attracted to one another in the atomic nucleus _{1}H^{2}. Answer: F =  49.93N. THE LAW OF THE FORCES OF NUCLEONS After everything discussed earlier, the following physical law can be formulated: LAW: In an atomic nucleus of atomic number Ν and mass number Μ, the resultant force of gravitational, electrogravitational and electric forces that are
exerted between any nucleon and the remaining nucleons of the atomic nucleus is always an attractive force. Thus, when the above law applies to all the nucleons of an atomic nucleus, then the latter is stable. In case, however, that this law does not apply to certain of the atomic nucleus’s nucleons, then these nucleons are expelled from the atomic nucleus and the latter becomes radioactive, emitting radioactivity in the form of alpha particles, beta particles and
γrays, until it finally resumes its stable state, under which the above law will apply for all its nucleons. The fundamental problem of the atomic nucleus’s stability The fundamental problem is set below: Problem: According to the postulates and laws of the EGT, from which mathematical method does it result that atomic nuclei are stable only for certain values of the Μ/Ν ratio? Evidently, the solution to
the above problem constitutes the object of broader theoretical research for Nuclear Physics. THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS MODEL According to the EGT, the atomic nucleus model (Fig.12) is the following: a. The atomic nucleus consists of nucleons which are all into electrogravitational contact with one another. b. The nucleons of the atomic nucleus move, thus, reaching certain energy levels. c.
The nucleons of the atomic nucleus hold one another via gravitational, electric and electrogravitational forces, according to the fundamental postulates of the atomic nucleus defined above. d. Nuclear forces (strong or weak) –which are accepted by modern Physics– do not exist in Nature according to the EGT. Consequently, the stability of atomic nuclei is attributed to the forces of the EGT, (gravitational, electrogravitational, electric forces) and under no circumstances is
the stability of atomic nuclei due to the “strong” and “weak” nuclear forces accepted by modern Physics. 
   
  
Fig. 12 THE TUNNEL EFFECT As it is wellknown, classical Physics fails to interpret the tunnel effect, whereas Quantum Mechanics gives it its own probabilitybased interpretation, by using the wave function Ψ. According to the EGT, this effect is interpreted in the following simple way: Let us assume (Fig 13) that we have the radioactive nucleus of _{92}U^{238}, emitting α
(alpha) particles. As it has been experimentally observed, although in this case the kinetic energy of the emitted α particles should be equal to 27 MeV, it actually equals only 4 MeV. This gives rise to the following question: What is the cause for this peculiar tunnel effect? The answer given to this question by the EGT is the following: 
   where m_{o,a} and M_{o,u} are the pure mass of the α particles and of the radioactive nucleus respectively. 3. The attractive electrogravitational dynamic F_{EG}, which is equal to: 
              
where q_{p} and Q_{p} are the absolute value of the total electric charge of the α particles and of the radioactive nucleus respectively. Consequently, the α particles, during their exit from uranium’s radioactive nucleus, are repelled by an electric force F_{E} (Relation (44)), but are simultaneously “halted” by an attractive force F_{R} which is equal to:
       
Obviously, as a result of this, the kinetic energy of the α particles drops from the expected value of 27 MeV (according to classical Physics) to just 4 MeV, due to the “halting” action brought about by the force F_{R} of relation (47). Additionally, when the emitted α particles, during their exit, are very close to the radioactive nucleus, i.e. R » r
, the outcome of the force F_{R} is very important and generates a considerable reduction in the kinetic energy of the emitted α particles. Therefore, the tunnel effect is a physical phenomenon that is attributed to the attractive gravitational and electrogravitational forces exerted between the emitted α particles and the radioactive nucleus, when the α particles are found outside and very close to the radioactive nucleus
Thus, this is the interpretation of the EGT for this peculiar physical phenomenon, i.e. the tunnel effect. THE PHYSICAL IMPORTANCE OF GRAVITATIONAL AND ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL FORCES As discussed in previous chapters, the gravitational and electrogravitational forces (which are always attractive forces) plays a significant part in the various physical phenomena. Especially in the microcosm, these forces play a
major role in the structure and stability of elementary particles and atomic nuclei. To put it plainly, the gravitational and electrogravitational forces inside elementary particles and atomic nuclei function as “adhesives” a) between bound electrons and positrons in elementary particles and b) between nucleons in atomic nuclei. Finally (as referred to above), the “strong nuclear” and “weak nuclear” forces, accepted by modern Physics, do not exist in Nature.
They are simply “concoctions of the mind” that bear no relation with the physical reality, because of the following: According to the EGT, the fundamental (primary) forces that exist in Nature are only three, namely: a. Gravitational forces b. Electrogravitational forces c. Electric forces No other force exist. Equally three are the fundamental “units” of matter, i.e.:
a. The graviton m^{o }b. The positive electrin +q^{o }c. The negative electrin –q^{o}No other particle exists. CONCLUSION The entire structure and dynamic of the universe (microcosm and macrocosm) expressed by physical laws is the outcome of the abovementioned three forces and three particle only.
In a nutshell, Physics is indeed very simple! EPILOGUE In this chapter (The Electrogravitational Theory, Part V) we presented how the EGT interprets the various physical phenomena that are connected with particle physics and physics of atomic nuclei. Yet, we are aware of the fact that this part of the EGT requires broad theoretical and experimental research that would lead to the formulation of new physical laws and
conclusions. Thus, in terms of research, the EGT is still at the outset and has a long way to go. However, time and experiments will show whether everything discussed in this chapter is accurate or not. Finally, (irrespective of whether the EGT proves right or wrong researchwise), particle physics and physics of atomic nuclei should be revised, for they are on the wrong track. This is manifested by the fact that while modern physics tries to solve one problem, a greater number
of questions is generated, questions that modern physics fails to answer. Thus, through time, the accumulation of all these unanswered questions will undoubtedly drive particle physics and physics of atomic nuclei at an impasse. It is certain that this will happen and quite soon. Perhaps the answer to the actual problems of particle physics and physics of atomic nuclei, as well as to other physical phenomena will be given by the EGT.
FINAL CONCLUSION OF THE EGT The entire science of physics, from Galileo to this day, should be thoroughly revised and rewritten again, since in its present form it hardly reflects the physical reality. Modern physics is actually pseudophysics!  THE END  Copyright 2007: Christos A. Tsolkas Christos A. Tsolkas
May 2007    © Copyright 2001 Tsolkas Christos. Web design by Wirenet Communications  
