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Ether and
Magnetic field

Galileo and
Einstein
are wrong

Equivalence
Principle

Ether and
Equivalence
Principle

Proof  for
the advance
of Mercury's
perihelion


Open
Letter

 

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory I

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory II

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory III

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory IV

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory V

Generalised
Geometry

Mathematics
of degree

Video 01

Video 02


Ether
and
Light

 


Experiment 21
Experimental
Verification

 


Experiment 22
Experimental
Verification

 


The mistakes
of Einstein

 


Spherical
Shell
Problem
 

Recapitu-
lation


TECHNOLOGY
Fusion:
The “ZEUS”
machine

 


CERN/OPERA
IKARUS
TSOLKAS

 

THE EXPERIMENT OF THE “SEALED CHAMBER” IN FREE FALL

The “sealed chamber” experiment, which will be described below, will demonstrate the mistakes in the internal structure of the General Theory of Relativity.
For this purpose, we will employ a “thought” experiment (similar to that employed by Einstein in the General Theory of Relativity), in order to prove that light curves within gravitational fields.
This “thought” experiment is as follows:

Data of the experiment

An inertial observer ΄ places a spherical chamber S, with a radius R, at a height h over the surface of a mass M (e.g. the Earth), fig.1.
Observer O is sealed within chamber S (with no contact with the external environment).
Observer O does not know the circumstances he is in, i.e. that he is motionless at a height h over mass M. Under these circumstances, the observer O is forbidden from conducting any experiments within chamber S.

Fig. 1

The observers agreement

 In this state of affairs regarding observers ΄ and O, as described above, the inertial observer ΄ communicates (e.g. using a radio) with observer O and says:
1. I am an inertial observer ΄, in an inertial reference system S.
When you receive my signal, you will know that the velocity of your chamber S, relative to me, is = 0.
2. Immediately after receiving my signal, you are free to begin conducting various experiments within your chamber S. In the event that you prove that you are moving under the influence of the gravitational force of a mass M, you should know that:
This mass M is motionless in relation to me, the gravitational field of mass M may be considered, for all intents and purposes, homogenous, and that after a length of time tA from the moment you receive my signal you will be on the surface of mass M.

PERFORMING THE EXPERIMENT

The inertial observer ΄ sends out a signal, which is received by observer O who is sealed within chamber S.
After the signal is received by observer O, the chamber S begins to move.
Obviously observer O, who is sealed within chamber S (without any contact with the external environment) does now know what kind of motion is performed by his chamber S.
In order, then, for observer O to establish the kind of motion that is performed by chamber S, he begins conducting various experiments.
Specifically:
During the time the chamber S is in free fall (which is known only by the inertial observer ΄, and obviously not by observer O, who is sealed within chamber S), observer O sets in operation a gyroscope G (gyroscopic compass), which he places in the centre 1 of his chamber.
In addition, observer O places two small masses m1 and m2 near the gyroscope.

Gyroscope
Photo. 1

At some point during the free fall of chamber S, the inertial observer ΄ transmits a light beam L towards chamber S (e.g. vertical to the trajectory of the fall of chamber S).
In this case, the inertial observer ΄ will watch the light beam move along the straight line ΄K.
Conversely, observer O (who is within chamber S) will see the light beam L enter the chamber at a point A, draw a curve (c) and exit the chamber at point B
After the above, observer O (who is sealed within the chamber), based on his observations of the gyroscope G, the two masses m1 and m2 and the curvature (c) of light beam L, reaches the following conclusions:
A. Conclusions based on observations made on the masses m1 and m2 and gyroscope G (Conclusions from Mechanical phenomena).
Observer O, during the free fall of his chamber, and observing the lack of motion of the two masses m1 and m2 from their initial position, where he placed them, and the fact that the axis xx΄ of gyroscope G doesnt shift at all, concludes that his chamber S is an inertial reference system, which:

  1. Is either motionless in relation to the inertial reference system ,
  2. Or is moving in a straight line with a constant velocity , in relation to the inertial reference system ,
  3. Or is in free fall within the gravitational field of a mass M.

B. Conclusions based on the curvature (c) of light beam L. (Conclusions from Electromagnetic phenomena.)
Observer O (accepting the General Theory of Relativity as correct), observing the curve (c) of light beam L during the free fall of his chamber, concludes that his chamber S:

  1. Is either motionless at a height h over a mass M,
  2. Or performing varied motion along a straight trajectory, away from gravitational fields (i.e., in space, away from any masses).

After the above observations and thoughts, observer O reaches the final conclusion that:
a. Conclusions (A.1) and (A.2) are rejected, because a light beam L never curves within inertial reference systems (such as the inertial reference systems used in the Special Theory of Relativity).
b. Conclusion (A.3) is valid because the two masses m1 and m2 are motionless in the position they were originally placed, and the axis xx΄ of gyroscope G does not shift from its initial position.
c. Conclusion (B.1) is rejected because if it were valid, mass would be at the level e of curve (c) and towards the interior of curve (c), and therefore the two masses m1, m2 would accelerate towards mass , i.e. in a direction ao , moving from their original position, where they were placed.
Because, however, no such movement of masses m1 and m2 in direction ao is observed, this conclusion (B.1) is rejected.
Note: The interior of curve (c) is shaded.
d. Similarly, conclusion (B.2) is also rejected, because in this case masses m1 and m2 ought to accelerate away from their original position, where they were placed, in an opposite direction e.g. to the acceleration vectors of chamber S. However, no such movement of masses m1 and m2 from their original position, where they were placed, is observed, and conclusion (B.2) is thus rejected.

Consequently, of the above options (A.1), (A.2). (A.3) and (B.1), (B.2), only (A.3) is valid, i.e. observer O finally concludes that: “My chamber S is falling freely through the gravitational field of a mass M, which is on the level e of curve (c) and towards the exterior of curve (c), fig.1.
Therefore (observer O claims), the curvature (c) of light beam L, which I observe within my chamber S is not due to the fact that the gravitational field of the alleged mass M curves the light beam L (as is mistakenly claimed by Einstein) but simply, the curvature of light beam L is illusive and owed exclusively to the free fall of my chamber S through the gravitational field of mass M.

CONCLUSION

Consequently (claims observer O), light beams never curve within gravitational fields (as is mistakenly claimed by Einstein in the General Theory of Relativity), but the curvature of light beams, which does indeed exist in nature, is a refraction of the light beams, which pass through the etherosphere, which surrounds every celestial body. (See “Electrogravitational Theory” by Ch.A. Tsolkas)

Finally, based on the “sealed chamber” experiment that we described above, and on the basis of conclusion (A.3), it is clearly proven that the “equivalence principle” of the General Theory of Relativity is wrong, i.e. light never curves within the gravitational field of mass M.

THE CALCULATIONS

In the “sealed chamber” experiment, observer O, after concluding that his chamber S is in free fall through the gravitational field of a mass M, now faces the following problem:
In which direction, relative to his reference system S, is mass M and what is the intensity of the gravitational field of this mass M?
Observer O, in order to solve the above problem, does the following:
He places at the centre O1 of chamber S, fig.2, a light source Lo, which radiates radial light beams, e.g. L1, L2, L3,...L36, in a right angle . (Note: this method is known as the “bright urchin” method).
Now, because the curvature of light beams (as described above) is not due to the gravitational field of mass M, but exclusively due to the free fall motion of chamber S thought the gravitational field of mass M, that means that the light beams L1, L2, L3,...L36 will curve and give us the corresponding curved light beams  , as shown on fig.2.

Fig.2

Consequently, the straight line that passes through the centre 1 of chamber S where the light beams, e.g. L1, L1΄ and L5, L5΄ meet (i.e. the straight line ff ΄)  give us the straight line along which the centre 1 of chamber S moves during its free fall through the gravitational field of mass M.
Obviously, the direction of the fall of chamber S is towards the interior of the curves and, where the straight line  is vertical to the straight line ff ΄. Thus, observer O now knows, from within chamber S (where he is sealed, i.e. his reference system S) the direction in which mass M is located, and the direction of the free fall of his chamber S
Following that, on the straight line , which is vertical to the straight line ff ΄ of the trajectory of the chambers free fall, observer O has the following:

and

where c is the speed of light and is the time taken by the light beam L7΄ to travel from the centre 1 to point 1.

Relations (1) and (2) yield:

In relation (3), observer O, measuring the distances (11) and (11), calculates the intensity g of the gravitational field of mass M, in which his chamber is falling freely.

Observer O is also equipped with a chronometer T and knows the mass m of his chamber S.
Therefore, when he received the signal from the inertial observer ΄, he entered t = 0 on his chronometer.
After a time period t from the moment of receiving the signal from the inertial observer ΄, observer O (who is sealed within chamber S), now knows that:
Relative to the inertial observer ΄:

1. Acceleration of the chamber S is:

2. Velocity of the chamber S is:

3. The distance S travelled by the chamber S, from the moment (t = 0) of receipt of the signal is:

4. The force F, which moves chamber S, is:

5. The height h at which chamber S was released is:

(tA is known, as mentioned above.)
6. Also, observer O knows that mass M, through the gravitational field of which chamber S is falling freely, is:

    or

    and based on relation (8), relation (9) yields:

    where G = the constant of universal attraction.
    7. Finally, observer O knows the kinetic energy E of chamber S for every moment in time t, which is:

      8. The momentum J of his chamber, which is:

      9. The potential energy U of his chamber, which is:

      where is the distance of chamber S from the surface of mass M, which is:

      and based on relations (6), (8) and (14), relation (13) yields:

      Where, in relations (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), (15), g is known and results from relation (3), and the mass m of chamber S, as well as the time period tA are also known.
      Thus, observer O (who is sealed within chamber S and without any contact with the external environment), knows, for every moment in time t, relative to the inertial observer ΄:
      a. The kind of motion performed by his chamber S , i.e. the direction of its motion.
      b. Whether or not there is a mass M outside chamber S, which moves his chamber.
      c. Finally, he knows the intensity g of the gravitational field of mass M, the acceleration of his chamber, the velocity , the distance S travelled by chamber S from the moment (t = 0) of the commencement f he experiment, and also the height h at which his chamber S was released, the force F that moves his chamber S, the mass M that attracts his chamber S, and the kinetic energy E, the momentum J, and the potential energy U of his chamber S.

      Obviously (according to the Theory of Relativity), observer O, who is sealed within his chamber S (without any contact with the external environment) cannot, under any circumstances, reach conclusions (a), (b), and (c). That is Einsteins great mistake!!!

       

      CONCLUSION

      The “sealed chamber” experiment, which we developed above, proves that the General Theory of Relativity (i.e. the “equivalence principle”) is completely wrong.

      As is obvious, the “sealed chamber” experiment also brings down the overall philosophy of the Theory of Relativity, regarding the non-existence of privileged reference systems.
      Privileged reference systems do exist in Nature, and one of them is the ether reference system, as described in Electrogravitational Theory.

      NOTE: Chamber S of the “sealed chamber” experiment is identical (i.e. in size) to the chamber used by Einstein in his well-known “thought” experiments, in the General Theory of Relativity (e.g. the “elevator” experiment, etc), in order to “prove” (as he claims) the equivalence between a bodys inertial and gravitational mass , and the curvature of light, within gravitational fields.
      The only difference being that within the chamber used by Einstein in performing his well-know “thought” experiments in the General Theory of Relativity, there are now a gyroscope G, two masses m1 and m2, etc.

      ©  Copyright 2001 Tsolkas Christos.  Web design by Wirenet Communications