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Ether and
Magnetic field

Galileo and
Einstein
are wrong

Equivalence
Principle

Ether and
Equivalence
Principle

Proof  for
the advance
of Mercury's
perihelion


Open
Letter

 

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory I

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory II

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory III

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory IV

The
Electro
gravitational
Theory V

Generalised
Geometry

Mathematics
of degree

Video 01

Video 02


Ether
and
Light

 


Experiment 21
Experimental
Verification

 


Experiment 22
Experimental
Verification

 


The mistakes
of Einstein

 


Spherical
Shell
Problem
 

Recapitu-
lation


TECHNOLOGY
Fusion:
The “ZEUS”
machine

 


CERN/OPERA
IKARUS
TSOLKAS

 

ETHER AND LIGHT
ABSTRACT

As is known, according to the Electrogravitational Theory (EGT), the following apply:

  1. Ether exists in nature, it fillsg up the entire universe and is the absolute reference frame.
  2. Ether consists of positive electrins +qo and negative electrins –qo.
  3. A positve eletrin, +qo, is the quantum of positive electricity, while a negative electrin -qo is the quantum of negative electricity.
  4. The electric charge of the positive or negative electrin equals (in terms of absolute value) the electric charge of the electron, that is:
    1. The positive and negative electrins of Ether obey Coulombs law, that is, heteronymic electrins are attracted to one another and homonymic electrins are repelled by one another via electric forces.
    2. The positive and negative electrins of Ether are in a constant disorderly motion and the collisions between these electrins are utterly elastic.  
    3. The positve electrin +qo, the negative electrin –qo and the graviton mo (which is the quantum of gravity and electrically neutral) are the ultimate elements of matter.
      The entire universe is made up of these three material particles only, i.e. of positive electrins +qo, negative electrins –qo and gravitons mo, and of no other particle. Strings, superstrings, loops, etc, do not exist in the universe. They are concoctions of the mind that bear no relation to natural reality.
    4. The gravitons mo constitute the pure mass of material bodies found in nature.
      They are alwlays attracted to positive electrins +qo and negative electrins –qo via electrogravitational forces.
       The gravitons mo are always attracted to one another via gravitational forces.
    5. Electricity (which is made up of positive and negative electins +qo and -qo), displays attraction and inertia properties.
      That is, the positive and negative electrins have attraction and inertia properties, and so do gravitons mo.
    6. Finally, according to the Electrogravitational Theory (EGT), relation (14), the  positive and negative electrins of Ether are attracted to celestial bodies (i.e. to the gravitions found within celestial bodies) via electrogravitational forces, and as a result, each celestial body is surrounded by its Etherosphere.
    7. The space between celestial bodies which is called “void” is not actually a void but a space highly electrically charged with the  positive and negative electrins of Ether.
    8. The positive electins +qo, the negative electrins -qo as well as the gravitons mo, are never converted into energy, nor is energy ever converted into them.
      The positive electrins +qo, the negative electrins -qo and the gravitons mo are never converted into one another and their total number has always been the same since the creation of the universe to this day.
      (For a more detailed discussion of Ether, see the Electrogravitational Theory (EGT) Part , , , V, V and video 02 on www.tsolkas.gr).

    ETHER BOX

    Let us assume that there is a box B which is airtightly closed and filled with ether.
    With regard to Ether, we accept the following Principle:
    Ether with its positive and negative electrins is an “electric fluid” following the laws of ideal fluids (gases).
    In other words, the Ether contained in box B acts like an “electric gas” whose “molecules” are its very positive and negative electrins.
    Thus, at a specific temperature T, the positive and negative electrins of Ether contained in box B are in a constant disorderly motion, colliding with one another (elastic collisions) and exerting a pressure P on the boxes sidewalls; that is, Ether is a compressible “electric gas”.
    Therefore, the Ether contained in box B displays phenomena analogous (not exactly identical) to those observed by classical Physics in fluids, as explained by the Kinetic Theory of Gases.
    Since the spase inside box B is electrically neutral, number 1 of positive electrins +qo is equal to number 2 of negative electrins -qo:

    1 = 2

    Therefore, the total number of positive and negative electrins contained in box B is:

    = 1 + 2

    Hence, the total electric charge Q (in terms of absolute value) of all positive and negative electrins contained in box B is:

    Q = N . qo

    Consequently, density of Ether (i.e. the “electric density”) contained in box B is: 

    where qo is the absolute value of the electric charge of the positive or negative electrin and V is the volume of box B.
    Note: In general, the density of Ether inside box is given by relation (1), where Q = N . qo and = 1 + 2 irrespective of whether:
    1) 1 = 2
    2) 12
    3) 1 ≠ 0 and 2 = 0
    4) 1 = 0 and 2 ≠ 0

    THE “PRINCIPLE OF DISTINCTION”
    OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

    The “principle of distinction” of electromagnetic radiation is a highly important principle of physics and is discussed here below:
    The “principle of distinction” of electromagnetic radiation: Each electromagnetic radiation  Ri, (i = 1, 2, 3…) of frequency i which is emitted in the form of electromagnetic waves has it own velocity ci which is never equal to the velocity of any other electromagnetic radiation, and hence the following relation applies: 

    where i is the velocity and i the wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation Ri.

    Therefore, according to the “pinciple of distinction”, no radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum ever has the same velocity as the other radiations.
    For instance, in the electromagnetic spectrum the red radiation has a velocity cR which is different from velocity cB of the blue radiation, that is, cR ≠ cB, and so forth as regards the other radiations. 
    As it can be observed, the “principle of distinction” of electromagnetic radiation is totally opposite to Maxwells Electromagnetic Theory and the Theory of Relativity, as well, both of which accept the following:
    “All electromagnetic radiations emitted in the form of electromagnetic waves have at all times the same velocity, which is equal to the speed of light c”.
    In other words, the well-known formula c = . used in physics for electromagnetic waves, where c is the speed of light (c = constant), the frequency and the wavelength of these electromagnetic waves, is utterly false.

    Note: In this paper, the term “light” refers always to “monochromatic light”.
    Moreover, since “white light” consists of a multitude RJ (J = 1, 2, 3,…) of electromagnetic radiations, the “white lights” velocity c shall be the mean velocity of all electromagnetic radiations RJ (J = 1, 2, 3,…) of which “white light” is made up.

    THE FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

    Law: For an electromagnetic radiation Ri (i = 1, 2, 3, …), emitted in the form of electromagnetic waves, the following fundamental relation applies:

    where , ,  are the velocity, frequency and wavelength of radiation Ri respectively.

    More specifically, the following apply:

    . In the absence of a gravitationl field:

      a) When frequency i increases, velocity ci increases also and wavelength i diminishes.
      b) When frequency i diminishes, velocity ci diminishes also and wavelength i increases.

      Reversely:

      c) When velocity ci increases, frequency i increases also and wavelength i diminishes.
      d) When velocity ci diminishes, frequency i diminishes also and wavelength i increases.

    . In the presence of a gravitationl field:

      a) When frequency i increases, velocity ci diminishes and wavelength i diminishes, as well.
      b) When frequency i diminishes, velocity ci increases and wavelength i increases, as well.

      Reversely:

      c) When velocity ci increases, frequency i diminishes and wavelength i increases.
      d) When velocity ci diminishes, frequency i increases and wavelength i diminishes.

    Consequently, according to law () mentioned above, in the electromagnetic spectrum, velocity cR of the red radiation is less than velocity cB of the blue radiation, i.e. cR < cB
    Apparently, because difference

    = cB – cR > 0

    is a very minor one (≈0), it is difficult to identify it experimentally. 
    So the main purpose of experiments A and B described below is to identify and calculate the velocity difference between the various types of radiation of the electromagnetic spectrum.

    Notable Remark

    Given that for all radiation pairs in the electromagnetic spectrum the velocity difference between the various radiations is a very minor one (≈0), in many cases (for the sake of simplification in our calculations) we can employ by very close approximation Fresnels law (amended) without including the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation under discussion, i.e. we can use the following formula:

    Where: is the modulus of elasticity of Ether (which is unchangeable relative to time and space).
               is the density (electric density) of Ether in which light is propagated.
               k is a constant which is dependent on the units we use, and
               c is the velocity of the electromagnetic radiation under discussion (e.g. a monochromatic light). 

    Example

    According to the above fundamental law, shortwaves (=107Hz), for instance, have a velocity c1 which is less than the velocity c2 of microwaves (=1012Hz), i.e. c1 < c2, and so forth for other pairs of electromagnetic waves.

    NOTE: The experimental verification of the fundamental law of electromagnetic waves referred to above is achieved:
    1) By conducting experiment which we will elaborate below, i.e. by means of electromagnetic radiation propagated within a refractive medium, e.g. water, and
    2) By conducting experiment which we will elaborate below, i.e. by means of electromagnetic radiation propagated within Ether, e.g. close to the surface of the Earth.

    EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION
    OF THE PRINCIPLE OF DISTINCTION
    OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

    EXPERIMENT A

    Let us assume, Fig. 1, that we have a sealed glass vessel Do, of length L, filled with water. On wall AB we place three light sources S1, S2, S3 of monochrome Laser beams.

    Fig. 1

    Specifically, light source S1 is a red monochrome Laser, S2 is a green monochrome Laser, and S3 is a purple monochrome Laser. Also, on the opposite wall CD of the vessel Do, we place three receivers (e.g. chronometers) D1, D2, D3. Finally, we fix vessel Do to the Earth, on two vertical posts of height ho.

    Performing the experiment

    Let us assume now that is the density of the Earths Etherosphere near its surface, and is the density of the Ether within vessel Do.
    According to E.G.T., > .
    We now emit simultaneously three Laser beams L1, L2, L3 from light sources S1, S2, S3. According to E.G.T., these three Laser beams L1, L2, L3 will travel the length L of vessel Do and reach receivers D1, D2, D3, respectively, at different times t1, t2, t3, i.e.:

    t1 t2 t3 (5)

    The difference in the time readings that appear in relation (5), taken by the receivers D1, D2, D3, is obviously consistent with the principle of distinction of electromagnetic radiation, as above, because:
    Each radiation of the Laser beams L1, L2, L3 has a different velocity c1, c2, c3 within the Ether of vessel Do, i.e. c1 ≠c2 ≠c3, and since they have a different velocity c1 ≠c2 ≠c3, they travel the length L at different times t1 t2 t3 , respectively, i.e.:

    Therefore, by performing experiment A, as described above, we may verify whether or not the principle of distinction of electromagnetic radiation is correct.
    Note: Since it has been experimentally proven that different radiations have different velocities through a refractive medium (e.g. water), we may verify the principle of distinction though experiment A, without actually performing experiment A.
    Therefore, experiment A proves the principle of distinction of electromagnetic radiation.
    Specifically, in our experiment, we have c1 < c2 < c3, and, based on relations (6), t1> t2 > t3. As we can see, the arrival times t1, t2, t3 of the beams L1, L2, L3 at the receivers D1, D2, D3 are inversely proportional to the frequencies 1, 2, 3 of the radiation of the beams L1, L2, L3, Fig. 1.

    EXPERIMENT

    Let us assume, Fig. 2, that we have two vertical posts and of a height ho, which are fixed to the surface of the Earth.

    Fig. 2

    These two posts and are placed at a large distance L from one another. On post we place three transmitters S1, S2, S3 of electromagnetic waves.
    Specifically, transmitter S1 emits short waves with a frequency of 1. Transmitter S2 emits microwaves with a frequency of 2, and transmitter S3 emits, for example, a monochrome red Laser, with a frequency of 3. In which case 1< 2 < 3.
    In addition, on the opposite post Bo we place three receivers (e.g. chronometers) D1, D2, D3.

    Performing the experiment

    Let us assume now that is the density of the Earths Etherosphere near its surface, and U is the density of the Ether of the universe outside the Earths Etherosphere.
    According to E.G.T., > U.
    We now emit simultaneously from transmitters S1, S2, S3 three beams of electromagnetic waves, i.e. L1, L2, L3. According to E.G.T., these three beams L1, L2, L3 will travel the length L and reach receivers D1, D2, D3, respectively, at different times t1, t2, t3, i.e.:

    t1 t2 t3 (7)

    These times t1, t2, t3 of relation (7) are taken by the receivers (chronometers) D1, D2, D3, and they are:

    The times t1, t2, t3 of relation (8) are different (t1 t2 t3), because, according to the principle of distinction, the velocity c1 of the short waves of transmitter S1, the velocity c2 of the microwaves of transmitter S2 and the velocity c3 of the Laser beam of transmitter S3, are different to one another, i.e.:

    c1 ≠c2 ≠c3 (9)

    Conversely, now, according to Maxwells Electromagnetic Theory and the Theory of Relativity, the times t1, t2, t3 of relation (8) should be equal, i.e. t1 = t2 = t3, because:
    According to the above theories, the velocity of all electromagnetic radiations (short waves, microwaves, visible light, etc) is always equal to the speed of light c, therefore, in relation (8), c1=c2=c3 and, subsequently, times t1, t2, t3 of relation (8) should be t1 = t2 = t3, if the above two theories are to be believed.
    Thus, a critical question comes up through the performance of experiment B:
    Will the beams L1, L2, L3 reach receivers D1, D2, D3 at different times t1 t2 t3, as supported by E.G.T. in accordance with the principle of distinction, or will they arrive at the same time, t1 = t2 = t3, as put forward by Maxwells Electromagnetic Theory and Einsteins Theory of Relativity?
    Clearly, this question can only be answered by performing experiment B.
    Experiment B is a simple experiment that can easily be performed by various Universities, Physics Laboratories, etc.
    It is plain to see that experiment B is of great importance for Physics, because:
    If, by performing experiment B, we prove that the times t1, t2, t3 are not equal, i.e. t1 t2 t3,  then, without a doubt, Maxwells Electromagnetic Theory will need to be revised (in accordance with the principle of distinction of electromagnetic radiation, as described above), and the Theory of Relativity will need to be rejected, as a whole. 
    Note: Since Ether is a refractive medium that fills up the entire universe, then, in experiment B (as in experiment A), c1<c2<c3 will also apply, and, based on relations (8), t1 > t2 > t3.
    As we can see, the arrival times t1, t2, t3 of electromagnetic waves L1, L2, L3 at the receivers D1, D2, D3 are inversely proportional to the frequencies 1, 2, 3 (1 < 2 < 3)  of these electromagnetic waves L1, L2, L3,  Fig. 2.
    Simply put, in our experiment, electromagnetic waves with a lower frequency reach the post later than electromagnetic waves with a higher frequency.
    This phenomenon can be observed in the universe, in the case of a star (explosion, collapse, emission of radiation, etc), where all radiations emitted by this star reach the Earth at different times.

    . THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT
    IN STRONG ELECTRIC FIELDS

    EXPERIMENT

    The purpose of the experiment we will describe below is to prove that within strong electric fields, light beams (and electromagnetic waves, in general):
    1. Curve
    2. Become displaced (drift), and
    3. Are reflected.

    Performing the experiment

    Let us assume, fig. 3, that we have a metal sphere S, with a radius r (e.g. r = 0.25 m), which revolves around a horizontal axis, which passes through its centre C.

    Fig. 3

    Specifically, the axis of revolution of the sphere S is placed and revolves on top of two vertical posts of a height ho (e.g. ho = 2m).
    These two posts ho are fixed to the Earth and located at a distance Do (e.g. Do = 4m) from one another. The revolution of the axis of sphere S may be achieved by connecting it to an internal combustion engine, an electric motor or a gas turbine engine.
    Also, at a distance of l (e.g. l = 5m) from the centre C of the sphere S is a vertical post of a height h.
    At a point G of post h there is a light source So, which emits a laser beams. The Laser beam L1, which is emitted by the light source So passes at a small distance d (e.g. d < 1 cm) from the surface of sphere S. Also, at a large distance L (e.g. L = 300m), is a vertical screen D, which is fixed to the Earth.
    Note: The Laser beam L1 the centre C of sphere S and pole h, are on the same vertical level.
    After what we described above, we will now conduct our experiment in four phases (Phase I, Phase II, Phase III, Phase IV), as follows:

    Phase I: Let us assume, fig. 3, that the metal sphere S is electrically neutral (+Q = 0) and does not revolve around its axis (angular velocity = 0). From the light source So we emit a Laser beam L1.
    In this case, the Laser beam L1 will travel in a straight line and reach a point on the screen D.

    Phase II: During this phase, sphere S is immobile ( = 0) and we charge it with a strong electric charge +Q (+Q ≠ 0).
    In accordance with E.G.T., in this case the electrically charged sphere S will attract the negative and repel the positive electrins of Ether.
    This way, the Etherosphere ES forms around the electrically charged sphere S, which has a radius R and consists of negative Ether electrins.
    Next, we emit a Laser beam L1 from light source So, aiming for point on the screen D.
    Thus, the Laser beam L1, after reaching point P on the external surface of the Etherosphere ES, it will meet increasingly dense layers of Ether as it travels through the Etherosphere ES, and, as a result, will travel in a curved line C1 from the point of entry P, to the point of exit 1.
    Note: If the density S of the Etherosphere S is taken as constant, then the curve C1 will obviously be a straight line.
    Next, the Laser beam L1, exiting from point 1, will follow a straight course 11 and reach point 1 on the screen D.
    Obviously, point 1 is below point and at a distance of (1) = a from the latter. This, of course, occurs because of the curving of the Laser beam L1 as it passes through the Etherosphere ES of the electrically charged sphere S.
    Note: For the sake of simplicity, if we assume that the density S of the Etherosphere S is constant, and that the density of the Etherosphere E of the Earth is also constant, as is the density U of the motionless Ether of the universe (away from gravitational fields), then the following relation will apply:

    U < < S (10)

    As can be observed during phase II, the curving C1 of the Laser beam L1 is purely a phenomenon of “Ether refraction”, because the Laser beam L1 travels from a less dense medium (such as the Etherosphere E of the Earth, whose density is ) to a more dense medium (such as the Etherosphere ES of the electrically-charged sphere S, whose density is S), where < S in accordance with relation (10), above.
    Simply put, during phase II the electrically charged sphere S, with its Etherosphere S, behaves like a spherical “Ether lens”, which causes the Laser beam L1 to curve (in other words, to refract).

    Phase III: During this phase, we repeat the same actions described in phase II, and revolve the electrically charged sphere S at a high angular velocity ( 0).
    In this case (according to E.G.T.), the electrically charged sphere S and its Etherosphere ES will revolve as one, at the same angular velocity .
    Thus, in Phase III (the time t taken for Laser beam L1 to travel the curve C1 of Phase II), in this time t, the point of exit 1 of the Laser beam L1 of Phase II, has moved to point 2, in relation to the reference frame of the Earth, where:

    and, therefore, in Phase III, the Laser beam L1 will exit at point 2. Then, the Laser beam L1 will travel along a straight line 22 and reach point 2 on the screen D. Obviously, point 2 is below point 1 and at a distance of (12) = b from the latter, because of the revolution of the Etherosphere S of the electrically-charged sphere S.
    Also, if we were to revolve the sphere in the opposite direction and at an angular velocity of –, then point 2 will move upwards, to another point 2΄, where 2 2΄.
    As observed during Phase II of our experiment, the Laser beam L1 moves (drifts) along with the revolving Etherosphere S of the electrically charged sphere S.
    Note: Given that the Etherosphere ES is within the Etherosphere E of the Earth, and that the Etherosphere E of the Earth is within the motionless Ether of the universe, in phase III the Laser beam L1 reaches the point 2 with a velocity of c (c=3000.000 Km/s).
    Simply put, the revolution of Etherosphere S at an angular velocity of does not increase the speed of light c at the point 2 on screen D.

    Phase IV: During this phase, sphere S is electrically charged by the electric charge +Q (+Q 0), but the sphere S is not revolving  ( = 0).
    Then, we raise the light source So to a height h1, in such a way that the angle of incidence of the Laser beam L1 on the Etherosphere ES will be very small (e.g. from 1 to 10).
    In this case, the Laser beam L1 will travel (by great approximation) a straight course c3 and reach point 3 on screen D.
    Then, from the light source So (and aiming, always, for point 3), we radiate at intervals (e.g. every 5 mins) beams of electromagnetic waves with an ever-increasing wavelength, i.e.:

    1 < 2 < 3 < … < k < k+1 < k+2 < … (12)

    Then, for a beam of electromagnetic waves with a wavelength of k, this electromagnetic beam (with a wavelength of k) will be wholly reflected by the Etherosphere S of the electrically charged sphere S and then continue its course through space.
    As observed during Phase IV of our experiment, for small angles of incidence and high wavelengths of the electromagnetic waves, we have the phenomenon of total reflection of these electromagnetic waves by the Etherosphere ES of the electrically charged sphere S.
    Those are, therefore, the four basic phases (Phase I, Phase II, Phase III, Phase IV) of performing our experiment.
    As observed, the experiment described above is a very important experiment of Physics, which may be easily performed by various Universities, Physics Labs, etc,
    After what we discussed above, we now come to following basic conclusion.

    Conclusion

    Light beams (and electromagnetic waves, in general) within strong electrical fields, have the following properties:
    1) To curve (Phase II).
    2) To become displaced (drift) (Phase III), and
    3) To be wholly reflected, (Phase IV).

    A notable observation

    The above conclusion is of great importance in Physics, because:
    Lets take, for example, the case of phase III of fig. 3. In this case, the metal sphere S, which bears an electric charge +Q and revolves around its axis at a constant angular velocity , can never:

      1) Revolve the vacant space that surrounds its around its axis of revolution (because vacant space never revolves), or
      2) Revolve the electric field that creates the electric charge +Q around its axis of revolution (because an electric field never revolves along with an electrically charged body, i.e. the sphere S).
      Therefore, the curving (refraction) and displacement of the light beam L1, in the case of Phase III, can only be explained if we accept that there is a certain “substance” interacting with the electrically-charged sphere S and follows (this “substance”) the revolution of sphere S around its axis.
      Subsequently, this “substance” can only be Ether, with its positive and negative electrins, as described in detail in E.G.T.

    I. THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT
    WITHIN STRONG MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Let us assume, fig. 4, that we have a cylindrical axis ΄, with a radius of r and a length of Do, which is made of a high resistance plastic material.

    Fig. 4

    Onto the axis ΄ we fix two identical solid cylinders 1 and 2, which are made of soft iron and have a radius of R and a width of d1. The two cylinders 1 and 2 are placed at a distance of do from one another.
    We now wrap the two cylinders 1 and 2 into conductors b, through which runs a continuous electric current of high intensity i.
    This way, the two cylinders 1 and 2 become electromagnets, and a strong magnetic field B, which is cylindrical, is created between the two.
    Also, axis ΄ is placed horizontally on top of posts ho (fig. 4), and revolves at a high angular velocity .
    In accordance with E.G.T., inside the magnetic field B that exists between the two electromagnets 1 and 2, the density of Ether is greater than the density of the Etherosphere E of the Earth, and the density U of the motionless Ether of the Universe, thus:

    > > U   (13)

    In the experiment of Fig. 3, we keep our experimental setup as is, and simply replace the rotating sphere S with the revolving electromagnets 1 and 2 of fig. 4.
    We now perform our experiment (exactly as we performed the experiment of Fig. 3), by directing the Laser beam L1 of the light source So through the magnetic field B of the two electromagnets 1 and 2, Fig. 4, and vertically in relation to axis ΄.
    The experiment is performed in four phases (Phase I, Phase II, Phase III, Phase IV), as follows:

    As observed in Fig. 4, the Etherosphere ES of Fig. 3 has been replaced in this experiment by the cylindrical magnetic field B, which is created between the two electromagnets 1 and 2.
    By performing our experiment in the four phases described above, we will observe that:
    In Phase , light is propagated in a straight line.
    In Phase II, light curves (refracts) inside the cylindrical magnetic field .
    In Phase III, light curves (refracts) while also being displaced (drifts) by the revolving cylindrical magnetic field , and
    In Phase IV, light is wholly reflected by the cylindrical magnetic field .
    In other words, during the performance of our experiment with the cylindrical magnetic field of the two electromagnets 1 and 2 of Fig. 4, exactly the same things occur as with the electrically charged sphere S of the experiment of Fig. 3.
    After what we described above, we now come to the following basic conclusion.

    Conclusion

    Light beams (and electromagnetic waves, in general) within strong magnetic fields, Fig. 4, have the following properties:
    1) To curve (Phase II).
    2) To become displaced (drift) (Phase III), and
    3) To be wholly reflected, (Phase IV).

    II. THE PROPAGATION OF LIGHT
    WITHIN STRONG GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS

    EXPERIMENT

    Let us assume, Fig. 5(a), that we have a celestial body of a large mass M, e.g. a white dwarf.

    Fig. 5

    According to the fundamental law of E.G.T.:

    where = the Electrogravitational constant
             qo = the absolute value of the electric charge of the positive or negative
                       electrins, qo = 1,6 . 10-19 Cb
             = the pure mass of the white dwarf (which is the result of gravitons that exist
                       within the mass M of the white dwarf)
               r = the distance of a positive or negative electrin from the centre of mass M
    the following will apply:
    The mass M of the white dwarf attracts, by Electrogravitational forces, the positive and negative Ether electrins of the Universe, forming around the white dwarf, as a result, an Etherosphere W, which consists of positive and negative Ether electrins.
    Let us assume now that the density of the Etherosphere EW at the surface of the white dwarf is and that the Etherosphere EW stretches out to a height H from the surface of the white dwarf.
    In this case (according to E.G.T.), the density of the Etherosphere EW of the white dwarf at a height H from its surface is:

    where, k = constant (k > 0).
    Thus, from relation (15), we have > .
    Let us assume now, Fig. 5(a), that on the surface of the white dwarf is a light source So, which emits, vertically and upwards, a light beam L1.
    In this case (according to E.G.T.), the initial velocity co at which light is emitted upwards from the surface of the white dwarf is lower than the speed of light c (c = 300.000 Km/s), i.e. co < c.
    When, however, the light beam L1 moves away from the surface of the white dwarf then, as the density of the Etherosphere EW decreases (relation (15)), the speed of light c1, c2, c3, …  of the light beam L1 increases, in accordance with fundamental law (4). In other words, the light accelerates until it reaches the edge of the Etherosphere EW, i.e. height H.
    Next, the light beam L1, after exiting the Etherosphere EW of the white dwarf, will continue to travel through the motionless Ether of the universe at a constant velocity c = 300.000 Km/s because the density U of the Ether of the universe is considered constant (law 4).
    Therefore, in Fig. 5(a):

    Now, in reverse:
    In Fig. 5(b), we assume that the light source So is in space and outside of the Etherosphere W of the white dwarf, and we direct the light beam L1 towards the centre of the mass M of the white dwarf.
    In this case, the velocity at which the light is emitted from the light source So is c = 300.000 km/s. Then, the light beam L1, after entering the Etherosphere EW of the white dwarf, will meet on its course increasingly dense layers of the Etherosphere EW.
    This results in the speed of light of the light beam L1 decreasing, in accordance with fundamental law (4). In other words, the light will decelerate until it meets the surface of the white dwarf, whereupon the speed of light of the light beam L1 will be co. Thus, the following will apply to the case of Fig. 5(b) in terms of the velocity of the light beam:

    c = 300.000 km/s > c1 > c2 > c3 > co (17)

    As observed, the case of Fig. 5(b) is exactly the reverse of the case of Fig. 5(a).
    After what we discussed above, we now come to the following basic conclusion:

    Conclusion

    In a very large mass M, which creates a very strong gravitational field around itself, light (through the Etherosphere of mass M) has the fundamental property of accelerating when it moves away from mass M, Fig. 5(a), and, conversely, decelerating when it moves towards mass M, Fig. 5(b).

    A notable observation

    In relation (14), the way the value of the Electrogravitational constant and the value of the pure mass are calculated, is a very interesting topic for theoretical and experimental research by natural scientists. One experimental method for calculating the pure mass mo of a Newtonian mass mu of a body, as well as the constants Go, , , k of E.G.T., is to use Cavendishs scales (see E.G.T., Part I, at www.tsolkas.gr).
    ATTENTION!!! In E.G.T., for the sake of simplifying calculations, all natural sizes, e.g. pure mass mo, Newtonian mass mu , the electric charge  and, obviously, all constants Go, , , k refer to, e.g., the CGS unit system, where:
    1) Time t is measured in sec
    2) Length l is measured in cm
    3) Pure mass mo and Newtonian mass mu are measured in gr, and
    4) Electrical charge q is measured in electrostatic units of charge (esu).

    THE PROPERTIES OF LIGHT

    According to E.G.T., the basic properties of light are:

      1. The speed of light (c = 300.000 Km/s) is not a fundamental constant of physics (c = 300.000 Km/s), as mistakenly put forward by the Theory of Relativity. In fact, the speed of light c in the universe is variable and depends on:
         a) The observers, whether they are in motion or motionless.
         b) The density of Ether, through which light is propagated, relation (4), and
         c) The frequency v of the emitted radiation (“The principle of distinction” of electromagnetic radiation), relation (3).
      2. The density of Ether, within strong electric, magnetic and gravitational fields, is always greater that the density U of the motionless Ether of the universe, > U.
      Therefore (according to law (4)), the speed of light within strong electric, magnetic and gravitational fields is always lesser than the speed of light c (c = 300.000 Km/s), which light takes on within the motionless Ether of the universe.
      3. The speed of light is constant and equal to c = 300.000 Km/s only when light is propagated away from electric, magnetic and gravitational fields, where the density U of the motionless Ether of the universe is constant (U = constant), in accordance with law (4).
      4. Light within strong electric, magnetic and gravitational fields, has the following properties:
         a) To curve (refract)
         b) To become displaced (drift), and
         c) To be wholly reflected.
      5. Light has the fundamental property to accelerate or decelerate, within strong gravitational fields (e.g. white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, etc), Fig. 5.
      6. Within material bodies (e.g. in water), the density of Ether is greater than the density U of the motionless Ether of the universe ( > U). This (according to law (4)) results in the speed of light c1 within these material bodies being lesser that the speed c that light takes on within the motionless Ether of the universe, i.e. c1 < c = 300.000 Km/s.

    ELECTROGRAVITATIONAL THEORY (E.G.T.)
    AND THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY

    It is a well-known fact that E.G.T. and the Theory of Relativity are two totally opposite Theories of Physics. Therefore:

      1. The phenomenon of curvature of light beams passing close to strong gravitational fields is not due to the curvature of space-time around these celestial bodies, as the Theory of Relativity mistakenly claims. The curvature of light beams (which does, indeed, exist in nature) is an “Ether refraction” of light beams, which pass through the Etherosphere of these celestial bodies (as described previously). Subsequently, the curvature of light beams reinforces the view that Ether exists in Nature, according to E.G.T.
      Thus, for the sake of greater accuracy in our measurements, since (as described previously) light is displaced (drifts) by large, revolving masses, this means that:
      In the well-know experiment of the curvature of light beams by the Sun (performed by Eddington in 1919), we need to also take into account the revolution of the Sun around its axis, in accordance with the rationale of Phase III of Fig. 3, where the sphere S is obviously replaced by the revolving mass of the Sun.
      2. Also, the Red – Shift phenomenon (which does indeed exist in nature) is not due to the “equivalence principle” of the General Theory of Relativity, as Einstein mistakenly claims.
       This phenomenon is due exclusively to the acceleration of light that is emitted upwards from the surface of the Earth, in accordance with Fig. 5(a). See the fundamental law of electromagnetic waves (b), cited above.
       Note: For details on the phenomenon of the curvature of light beams, as well as the Red – Shift phenomenon, please refer to E.G.T. Part III and video 02 on www.tsolkas.gr.

    A notable observation

    Following what we described above, it is plain to see that E.G.T. and the Theory of Relativity interpret the above two phenomena (1) and (2) in totally different ways.
    The question, however, that emerges now is this: Which of these two Theories is correct, E.G.T. or the Theory of Relativity?
    The answer to the above question is very simple, and provided by the (19+) experiments proposed on www.tsolkas.gr.
    In particular:
    a) By performing two simple experiments, (18) and (19), and with very little expense, we can prove, beyond doubt, that the Theory of Relativity is completely false.
    b) By performing experiment (14), also very simple and requiring no expense whatsoever, we can prove, theoretically, that the General Theory of Relativity is completely false.

    Therefore, there is no need for costly experiments and complex reasoning in order to prove that the Theory of Relativity is a completely false theory of Physics.
    Unfortunately, todays “great” Physicists either cannot or do not want to understand this “simple fact”.
    So what is going on?
    Could it be that contemporary Physics is controlled and guided by an invisible “clergy”, a modern-day “Holy Inquisition” (an establishment of Physics) and they cannot see those clear and simple “things” described on www.tsolkas.gr?

    COSMOLOGY

    It is clear that E.G.T. changes many of the facts of Cosmology, as we understand it so far, because:

      1. What applies to the acceleration or deceleration of light in the case, e.g. of a white dwarf of mass M, Fig. 5, also applies to a black home of mass M.
      I.e. through the very dense Etherosphere Eb of a black hole, light accelerates when it travels away from the black hole, and, conversely, light decelerates when it travels towards the black hole.
      Conversely, material bodies accelerate as they travel towards the black hole and decelerate as they travel away from it.
      Clearly, the above conclusion is totally opposite to what is widely accepted by contemporary Physics and, in particular, the General Theory of Relativity, wit regards to black holes.
      2. In the first few moments of the Big Bang, since the universe took up a very small space, the density U of the Ether of the universe was very high.
      Subsequently, the speed of light co in the first few moments after the Big Bang was much lower than the speed of light c (c = 300.000 Km/s) that we know today, i.e. co < c.
      With the passage of time, however, the universe began to expand and take up more space. This resulted in the density U of the Ether of the universe becoming lower, as time passed.
      Subsequently, the speed of light (see law (4)) increased with time, from the moment to of the Big Bang.
      Simply put, the speed of light c is a function of the time t that has passed from the moment to of the Big Bang, i.e.:
      Thus, the speed of light was at its minimum at the moment to of the Big Bang, and its speed increased continuously with the passage of time.
      Therefore, the speed of light c in space and time is variable, and it is not a natural constant c (c = 300.000 Km/s), as Einstein mistakenly claims.
      3. The well-known “background radiation” of Penzias and Wilson is nothing more than electromagnetic waves propagated through the Ether of the universe, which blew up during the moment to of the Big Bang and now fills the entire space of the universe homogenously.
      Therefore, “background radiation” is indisputable proof of the existence of Ether in the universe.
      4. Since Ether fills up the whole of the universe and interacts with the various celestial bodies by means of Electrogravitational forces, this results in:
      The movements of large masses in the universe (e.g. galaxies, galaxy clusters, etc) being affected by:
       a) the Ether that exists in the universe, and
       b) the constant of universal attraction G.

      A notable observation

      According to E.G.T., the constant of universal attraction G is not a constant of Physics, as Newton mistakenly claims in the law of universal attraction. In this case, Newton is wrong.
      Conversely, the constant of universal attraction is a relative size, which depends of the material composition of the bodies attracted to one another.
      (See E.G.T., Part , relations (44), (45), (46) on www.tsolkas.gr).
      5. At this point, we need to stress that:
      What contemporary Physics terms “dark matter” is none other than Ether with its positive and negative electrins, which fills up the whole of the universe.
      In addition, what contemporary Physics terms “dark energy” is none other than the energy of the positive and negative electrins of Ether.

        Finally, what we mentioned above are a few of the conclusions of “New Cosmology”, in accordance with E.G.T.

      THE FUNDAMENTAL LAW OF THE NON-CONSTANCY
      OF THE SPEED OF LIGHT

      Let us assume, Fig. 6, that at the moment to of the Big Bang, the whole of the universe was concentrated in a very small sphere So of radius ro.

      BIG - BANG
      Fig. 6

      According to E.G.T. (See E.G.T., Part I, at www.tsolkas.gr), all the positive and negative electrins and all the gravitons of the universe (in free form) were concentrated in this small sphere So.
      Also, as is well known (according to E.G.T.), the free positive and negative electrins of the universe make up Ether, i.e. the medium for the propagation of light. Thus, the primordial sphere So consisted of Ether (i.e. of free positive and negative electrins) and free gravitons.
      After the Big Bang, the universe (the primordial sphere So) began to expand at a velocity V in all directions.
      During this phase, when the universe (i.e. sphere So) expanded, a large number of positive and negative electrins bound to all the gravitons that existed in sphere So and formed, that way, all the celestial bodies known to us today (planets, stars, galaxies, etc).
      The positive and negative electrins that remained (after binding to the gravitons) now exist in free form in the universe, and make up the well-known Ether of the universe.
      Thus, within the primordial sphere So, the speed of light co (according to law (4) mentioned above), was:

      where, was the density of Ether within the sphere So.
      Let us assume now that, at a time t after the moment to of the Big Bang, the expanding universe was a sphere with a radius R, ( R>>ro).
      Assumptions: Assuming in Fig. 6 that:
      1) The universe is expanding (by very close approximation) at the same constant velocity V in all directions, and
      2) Fresnels amended formula (4) applies (by very close approximation) when the whole universe was concentrated within sphere So of radius ro, and when the expanding universe is concentrated within a sphere S of radius R, then we will have:
       In accordance with the above two assumptions (1) and (2), the speed of light through the Ether of sphere S with radius R, is:

        where is the density of Ether within sphere S.
        From relations (20) and (19), we have:

          But since (in absolute terms) the total electric charge Q of all free positive and negative electrins of Ether, within sphere So was:

          then, within sphere S, after the Big Bang, the total (in absolute terms) electric charge Q΄ of the free positive and negative electrins that comprise Ether is:

          Given, however, that a very small percentage of Ether (i.e. the free positive and negative electrins) that existed in sphere So bound with all the free gravitons (that existed within sphere So) and thus formed the visible matter of the universe, as we know it today (e.g. planets, stars, galaxies, etc), then, by very close approximation, we have:

          Q = Q΄ (24)

          Therefore, relations (24), (23) and (22) yield:

          Subsequently, relations (25) and (21) yield:

          But because:

          relations (27) and (26) yield:

          In relation (28), given that:

          relation (28) becomes:

          where, in relation (29), the constant will be termed the first cosmological constant.
          Relation (29) is the fundamental law of the non-constancy of the speed of light.
          As we can see, law (29) tells us that:
          Law: The speed of light c is not a natural constant, as mistakenly claimed by the Theory
                   of Relativity and contemporary Physics.
                   Conversely, the speed of light c in the universe is variable and, specifically,
                   a function of the time t that has passed since the moment to of the Big Bang,
                   relation (29).
          In other words, as we can see, according to law (29), the speed of light c increases with the passage of time, as the universe expands. In short, and on the basis of law (29), the speed of light c1 one (1) billion years ago, for example, was lower than the speed of light c today, which is c = 300.000 Km/s, i.e. c1 < c.
          Based, therefore, on fundamental law (29), we come to the following conclusion:

          Conclusion

            1. Any theory of Physics that, in its axiomatic foundation, accepts the constancy of the speed of light c as an axiom (such as, e.g., the Special Theory of Relativity) is a false Theory of Physics.
            2. If the mathematical formula of any law of Physics includes the speed of light c, then that law is unchangeable (quantitatively) through time but, quite the opposite, it is variable (quantitatively) and always a function of the time t that has passed since the moment to of the Big Bang.
            Therefore, for example, the mathematical formula:
              which includes the speed of light c (for = constant), will yield a different result now, for the wavelength to the result it will yield in, for example, one (1) billion years from now.

            Example
            (of the non-constancy of the speed of light)

            Let us assume that t = 15 billion years (1,5 . 1010 years) have passed from the moment to of the Big Bang, and the speed of light today is c1 = 300.000 Km/s 3 . 105 Km/s.
            The question is:
            What will the speed of light be 50,000 years from today?

            SOLUTION

            According to fundamental law (29) of the speed of light, today, i.e. 1,5 . 1010 years after the moment to of the Big Bang, the speed of light c1 is:

              Also, 50,000 years from today, the speed of light c2 will be:

              Relations (31) and (30) yield:

              Given, however, that according to the facts of the example, the speed of light today is c1 = 300.000 Km/s, relation (32) yields:

              Subsequently, as demonstrated by relation (33), the speed of light 50,000 years from today will have increased by 1,5 Km/s, compared to the speed of light today, which is c1 = 300.000 Km/s.
              Also, by applying the same rationale as above, we find that:
              1. 1,000 years from today, in the year 3009, the speed of light will have increased by 0.02 Km/s, or by 20 m/s, compared to the speed of light today, which is c1 = 300.000 Km/s.
              2. Finally, it is possible to work out the speed of light in, e.g. 500, 100, etc years from today, by the same method.

              EPILOGUE

              To sum up, everything we looked at during this project leads to the following conclusions:

                1. Classical Physics has obviously failed to explain to conclusions cited in this project.
                2. Based on the conclusions of this project, the Theory of Relativity must be deemed a totally false theory of Physics.
                3. As we can see, the conclusions of this project have huge consequences for Physics (e.g. Theoretical Physics, Astrophysics, Cosmology, etc), as we know it. Therefore, several conclusions of the above sciences, which are currently considered valid, need to be reviewed.

              Coming to the end of this project, we need to repeat, once more, that:

              Physics, from Galileo until today (Galileo, Classical Physics, the Theory of Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, etc) is on the “wrong path”, and the Laws of Physics as we know them do not express the reality of nature.  

              Thus, contemporary Physics needs to be reviewed as a whole (from Galileo until today), and rebuilt upon “new foundations”, in accordance with the axiomatic foundation and the laws of E.G.T.

              MY PROPHECY…

              I am certain that the Physicists of the future will laugh (!!!) at todays great Physicists, who either cannot or do not want to understand simple things, such as experiments (1), (18) and (19) out of a total of nineteen (19) plus experiments listed on www.tsolkas.gr.
              Because the above three experiments prove, in a very simple way, that the Theory of Relativity is a totally false Theory of Physics.
              Thus, the Theory of Relativity (as the greatest scientific fallacy in the history of Physics) must be rejected “here and now”, and cease to be taught in Universities, etc for the simple fact that it is a wholly false Theory of Physics. 
              Subsequently, if the Theory of Relativity does not cease to be taught in Universities, etc, then we will be justified in describing the current state of contemporary Physics as comi-tragic!!!
              That is my humble prophecy… and time will tell whether Im right or wrong.

               

              Copyright 2009: Christos A. Tsolkas                                                          August 12, 2009

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