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Ether
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Recapitu-
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TECHNOLOGY
Fusion:
The “ZEUS”
machine

 


CERN/OPERA
IKARUS
TSOLKAS

 

THE “ZEUS” MACHINE
(PRODUCING ENERGY FROM A CONTROLLED FUSION OF ATOMIC NUCLEI)

Summary

In this project, we will look into the basics, the structure (description) and the operation of the “ZEUS” machine.
As we know, various machines for the production of energy from the controlled fusion of atomic nuclei have been tried for several years.
Until now, none of these efforts have achieved the desired result.
Conversely, by using the “ZEUS” machine (which we will analyse below), we have much higher odds of achieving the desired result:
In other words, to produce energy from the controlled fusion of atomic nuclei.
Lets now look at the basics of the structure (description) and operation of the “ZEUS” machine.

THE “ZEUS” MACHINE

. STRUCTURE (DESCRIPTION)
Let us assume, Fig. 1, that we have a solid metal sphere S with a centre C and a radius R.
The metal sphere S is usually made of a very hard metal alloy.

Fig. 1

From the metal sphere S we remove a cone Co, whose angle of the apex C is relatively small, e.g. = 10.
Also, the internal walls of cone Co are very smooth.
The outside of sphere S is covered by a strong insulating material (electrically charged), whose thickness is s1.
We place sphere S inside a container Do, which is filled with water.
Sphere S stands at the bottom of container Do with a base 1, which is also made from a strong insulating material (electrically charged).
Also, a tube T, with length L, connects the sphere S with a particle accelerator 1 (e.g. a synchrotron).
Between the sphere S and the tube T there is also a strong insulating material (electrically charged), which means there is no electrical contact between the sphere S and the tube T.
Finally, sphere S is electrically insulated from the entire device of the machine.
The sphere S is the reactor of the “ZEUS” machine. We remove the atmospheric air from the cone Co, the tube T and the accelerator 1.
In addition, within the tube T and at a length l, there are electric fields 1, 2, 3, … which, if properly calibrated, reduce the velocity 1 of the ions which issue from accelerator 1.
Note: The above reduction in the velocity 1 of the ions, which issue from the accelerator 1 is from value 1 to another, desired value 2 (2<1), which we consider necessary in order to achieve an efficient fusion of atomic nuclei.
Next, inside cone Co and at the apex C, we place a small quantity of tritium (1H3) in liquid or solid form, (or 3Li6) .
Let us assume now that d is the diameter of the circular base of the cone of the tritium 1H3 quantity (which we have placed inside cone Co and at the apex C).
Then, we charge the metal sphere S with a (relatively medium) positive electric charge +Q.
The purpose of this positive electric charge +Q is to remove from the metal sphere S (and transfer to the Earth) all free electrons that exist within the metal sphere S.
Note: The (relatively medium) positive electric charge +Q (as above) is not fundamental in the design of the reactor of the “ZEUS” machine. This positive electric charge +Q could be Q = 0 or even –Q.
However, with a charge of Q+, the ions of deuterium 1H2 of beam b (as we will see below), remain ions within cone Co, with a slightly reduced velocity, due to the electric field (of positive electrical charges) that exists within cone Co.
Next, we insert a large number of ions (nuclei) of deuterium (1H2) inside the accelerator 1 and accelerate them until they gain a high velocity 1.
We now assume that the beam b (of ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2, which issues from the accelerator 1 at a high velocity 1) is roughly cylindrical in shape, with a circular diameter cross-section D, (D > d).
Also, the density do of the ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2, contained within beam b must (preferably) have the highest possible value do.
Finally, the axis xx΄ of the circular beam b of the ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2 passes from the apex C of cone Co and the middle E of the exit of the accelerator 1.
What we discussed above is the basics of the structure (description) and design of the “ZEUS” machine.

. OPERATION

Simply put, the “ZEUS” machine operates as follows:

  1. We insert inside the accelerator 1 a large number of ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2 and accelerate them, until they acquire a high velocity 1.
    Note: At this stage, the electric fields 1, 2, 3, … are inactive (out of operation) and we put them into operation only when it becomes necessary to lower velocity 1.
  2. Next, in a very short time ta (e.g. ta = sec or ta = nsec), we allow the ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2 (which have gained a high velocity 1 inside the accelerator 1)to exit the accelerator 1
    Note: Time ta, will henceforth be known as action time ta.
  3. Thus, from accelerator 1 issues a beam b of ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2, which have a high velocity 1 and a (relatively) high density do
    Also, beam b is roughly of cylindrical shape, with a circular diameter cross section D, (D > d).
  4. As the above beam b enters cone Co, it will meet the internal walls (of cone Co) by a circular cross section with diameter , ( = D).
    Specifically:
    a) The central part fo of beam b, which has a circular cross section of diameter d΄ (d΄ = d) will travel “directly” to the cone of tritium 1H3 (which is placed inside cone Co and apex C).
    b) The remaining part f1 of beam b (which is around the central part fo), after successive reflections on the internal walls of the cone ABC, will also eventually reach the cone of tritium 1H3.
    Therefore, both the central part fo and the remaining part f1 of beam b (of ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2) will gather, at high velocity 1 within the cone of tritium 1H3.
    Specifically, the ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2 of the central part fo and the remaining part f1 of beam b will gather in a very small area (space) , ( → 0) around the apex C and the inside of cone Co.
  5. Thus, if the velocity of the ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2 of beam b has such a value as to overcome the potential barrier of nuclei of tritium 1H3 (which is placed inside cone Co and apex C), then, in the above very small area (space) , ( → 0) we will certainly have:
    Fusion of the ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2 of beam b with the atomic nuclei of tritium 1H3, which is placed inside cone Co and apex C.
    Note:
    If, in order to achieve the above fusion, the velocity 1 of the ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2 of beam b needs to be 2, (2 < 1), then there are two ways of achieving that.
    a) We can accelerate the ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2 inside the accelerator 1 until their acquire a velocity of 2, or
    b) With the help of electric fields 1, 2, 3, … which exist within tube , we can reduce the velocity of the ions (nuclei) of beam b from value 1 to value 2, (2 < 1).
  6. As we know, the above fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium 1H2 of beam b and the atomic nuclei of tritium 1H3, which is inside cone Co gives out energy 17,59 MeV, according to the nuclear reaction:
  1. This energy of 17,59 MeV heats up the metal sphere S and, subsequently, the water contained in the container Do.
    We ultimately convert the heat of the water into electric power, in the exact same way that we apply to nuclear fission reactors (Uranium, Plutonium).

This concludes our brief description of how the “ZEUS” machine operates.

Control and constant operation of the machine

In the “ZEUS” machine, since the nuclear energy produced from the fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium 1H2 and tritium 1H3 needs to be continuous and constant in terms of the time unit t (i.e. the power P of the machine must be constant), this can be achieved in the following way:
From a “warehouse” of ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2, we constantly feed the accelerator 1 with these ions.
Next, at intervals, we direct beams b of ions (nuclei) of deuterium 1H2, accordingly and for a very short time ta (action time ta), towards the quantity of tritium 1H3 (which is inside cone Co and close to the apex C).
Thus, every time we direct a new beam b towards the quantity of tritium 1H3, we will have a respective production of energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium 1H2 and tritium 1H3.
Therefore, in this way, we will have a controlled and constant production of energy at time unit t from the “ZEUS” machine.
Finally, by using the “ZEUS” machine, a nuclear energy production station could have one or more machines, either operating simultaneously or in a predefined order, i.e. when one machine ceases to operate, the next is set into operation.

Conclusion

In summary of all that we discussed in this project, we have established the following:
The most fundamental and most important part of the structure and operation of the “ZEUS” machine is the design of its reactor, namely the metal sphere S, Fig. 1.
The rationale of the reactors design is as follows:
Inside cone Co (whose angle of the apex C is small) and close to the apex C, we place a small quantity of one of the two materials for fusion (e.g. tritium 1H3).

Next, we “bombard” the motionless target of the quantity of tritium 1H3 with a dense beam of ions, of high kinetic energy E, of the second material for fusion (deuterium 1H2).
Based, therefore, on the design of the reactor of the “ZEUS” machine, the following will take place:
In a very small space ( → 0, which is inside cone Co and very close to the apex C) we will observe:
A great energy E will concentrate and be trapped in a very small space ( → 0), resulting in the fusion of the atomic nuclei of tritium 1H3 with the atomic nuclei of deuterium 1H2, and thus producing nuclear energy from this fusion.
As we can see, the rationale of the reactors design plays a critical role in the efficient fusion of the atomic nuclei of deuterium 1H2 and tritium 1H3, using the “ZEUS” machine.

A notable observation

In addition, another way to achieve the fusion of the atomic nuclei of deuterium 1H2 and tritium 1H3, is the following:
We insert in the accelerator 1, roughly an equal quantity of ions of deuterium 1H2 and tritium 1H3 and accelerate them until they acquire a very high velocity 1.
Next, and for a very short time ta (action time ta), we insert this beam b of the above ions of deuterium 1H2 and tritium 1H3 into the cone Co, inside which, and at the apex C, there is no quantity of tritium 1H3, or 3Li6 .
This way, a great energy (of the ions of deuterium 1H2 and tritium 1H3 of beam b) will be concentrated and trapped in a very small space ( → 0). Subsequently, this will certainly result in the fusion of the atomic nuclei of deuterium 1H2 and tritium 1H3 of beam b within space ( → 0).
This way of achieving fusion (f the atomic nuclei of deuterium 1H2 and tritium 1H3 of beam b), as described above, will henceforth be known as adjoint method for fusion .
Conversely, the way we described above, Fig. 1 (where a quantity of tritium 1H3 is placed inside cone Co and at the apex C) will henceforth be known as non adjoint method for fusion.
Both ways, namely the non adjoint method for fusion and the adjoint method for fusion, are just as effective in achieving the fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium 1H2 and tritium 1H3, by using the “ZEUS” machine.
In addition, a third (and very interesting) way of achieving the fusion of atomic nuclei by using the “ZEUS” machine is the following:
We place a very small sphere A (the size of a pinhead, or smaller), containing deuterium and tritium, inside cone Co and apex C, Fig. 1.
Then, for a very short time ta (action time), we direct a beam b of high power Laser beams to the sphere A, through cone Co.
In this case, within the space ( → 0) the fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium and tritium will certainly take place.
This way of achieving fusion will henceforth be known as fusion of atomic nuclei with Laser beams.

Finally, the three ways of achieving the fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium and tritium, as described above, i.e.:

  1. The non adjoint method for fusion
  2. The adjoint method for fusion, and
  3. Fusion with Laser beams

are the three basic ways of achieving the fusion of atomic nuclei of deuterium and tritium by using the “ZEUS” machine.
TE: The adjoint method for fusion used in the “Zeus” Machine (other than the case of Deuterium – Tritium ions mentioned above) can be employed in the exact same way in the case of Hydrogen – Hydrogen ions.

Epilogue

Based on what we discussed in this project, we have given a basic description of the design of the “ZEUS” machine, i.e. its structure (description) and the way it operates.
The “ZEUS” machine has several advantages compared to the various other fusion machines that have been tried so far, and whose result was negative.
Given todays technology, the structure and operation of the “ZEUS” machine could be turned into reality.
The “ZEUS” machine is also advantageous in terms of cost, compared to other fusion machines.
However, the experimental research and necessary improvements that could be made on the “ZEUS” machine, will (I believe) give us the desired result, namely to produce energy from the controlled fusion of atomic nuclei.
Regardless, however, of what we discussed in this project, time and experiments will show us whether we could, ultimately, achieve the desired result.
Let us hope, then, that one day the “ZEUS” machine will be tried out in practice, and that we will have the desired result, for the good of mankind and the protection of the environment.

Copyright 2010: Christos A. Tsolkas
tsolkas1@otenet.gr

Christos A. Tsolkas
Agrinio, December 21st, 2010

 

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